Skip to Main Content

Vancouver referencing style

Vancouver - numbered referencing style

What is an indirect citation / secondary source

A secondary source/indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • In the reference list, provide the details of the author of the work in which you found the quotation or idea - the actual source you looked at.
  • Make it clear in the text of your document that you are quoting a secondary source.
  • If possible always try and find the original work.

Indirect citation / secondary source

Elements of the citation Follow the format of the reference in which you found the indirect citation.

Reference list
as secondary source

- Book
- Journal article

  1. Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984.
  1. Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs), Science and Children [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2010 Apr 20];44(7): 44. Available from:
In-text reference Higgins1 discusses Newman’s research in his work,..

Clements2 quoted Chandler in his article... 
EndNote reference type Book
Electronic Article