A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.
In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets or Arabic numbers in superscript with no brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
The identification of references within the text of the essay/paper may vary according to the preferred style of the journal or the preferred style of the department or lecturer. For example superscript may be preferred when referencing. eg. Example2;
The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited. A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g. Smith10 has argued that...
The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text.
When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non‐inclusive numbers in a multiple citation e.g. (2,3,4,5,7,10) is abbreviated to (2‐5,7,10).
Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. (1‐2). Use instead (1,2)
The placement of citation numbers within text should be carefully considered. A particular reference may be relevant to only part of a sentence. As a general rule reference numbers:
should be placed outside full stops and commas
should be placed inside colons and semicolons
the citation number can be place next to the author name where emphasis is place on the author eg. Smith2
check with your faculty/school or journal publisher to determine their requirements
Examples without page numbers:
There have been efforts to replace mouse inoculation testing with invitro tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (57,60) or polymerase chain reaction.
Numerous studies20‐22 have.....
Moir and Jessel maintain “that the sexes are interchangeable”.(1)
Moir and Jessel maintain “that the sexes are interchangeable”.1
Examples with page numbers:
Patients showed no signs of diabetes.1(p23),9
Smithers2(pp3,6) reported no sign of... (more than one page cited)
Jones (10 pp23‐27) states that...
Examples with authors names in the text of the document
Smith's research .......21
Smith and Jones22 research .....
Up to 3 authors eg. Smith, Jones and McDonald reported that .........23