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APA 7th referencing style

This is a guide to using the APA7 referencing style from the American Psychological Association. It is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Using personal communications

  • These can include:
  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

Elements of the reference Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
In-text reference

J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018)

(K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)

EndNote reference type Add manually to document using above format.