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APA 7th referencing style

This is a guide to using the APA 7th referencing style from the American Psychological Association. It is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Print article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s).

In-text reference

(Lowrie & Diezmann, 2009)

Lowrie and Diezmann (2009) have found that ....

Reference list

Lowrie, T., & Diezmann, C. M. (2009). National numeracy tests: A graphic tells a thousand words. Australian Journal of Education, 53, 141-158.

EndNote reference type Journal article

One author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address

In-text reference

(Osman, 2010)

OR

Osman (2010) thought that….

Reference list

The volume number is in italics

Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 65-86. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017815

EndNote reference type

Journal article (print)

Electronic article 

Two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI or Web address

In-text reference

(Kerrigan & Kingdon, 2010)

Kerrigan and Kingdon (2010) mentioned that ....

Reference list

Kerrigan, A. M., & Kingdon, C. (2010). Maternal obesity and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Midwifery, 26, 138-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005

EndNote reference type Journal article

Three to twenty authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address - if available

In-text reference

(Skenderian et al., 2008)

Skenderian et al. (2008) stated that ....

Reference list

Skenderian, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Lac, A., & Alvaro, E. E. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents' intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 563-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013020

EndNote reference type Journal article

21 authors or more

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials for first 19 . . . Last Author family name, initial(s). (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address - if available

In-text reference

Use only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, for every use of the reference.

(Nath et al., 2008)

Nath et al. (2008) have said that ....

Reference list

List all authors up to 19 names.

For 21 or more authors, include the first 19, then an ellipsis - ... - followed by the last author's name.

Nath, A. P., Ritchie, S. C., Grinberg, N. F., Tang, H. H., Huang, Q. Q., Teo, S. M., Ahola-Olli, A. V., Wurtz, P., Havulinna, A. S., Santalahti, K., Pitkanen, N., Lehtimaki, T., Kahonen, M., Lyytikainen, L. P., Raitoharju, E., Seppala, I., Sarin, A. P., Ripatti, S., Palotie, A., . . . Inouye, M. (2019). Multivariate genome-wide association analysis of a cytokine network reveals variants with widespread immune, haematological, and cardiometabolic pleiotropy. American Journal of Human Genetics, 105(6), 1076-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.10.001

EndNote reference type Journal article

No author

Elements of the reference

Title of article. (Year). Title of journal - italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI or Web Address - if available

In-text reference

Use the first words of the article title.

Use double quotation marks around the article title.

("Vitamin K for Newborns", 2016)

Reference list

Vitamin K for newborns. (2016). Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 61(5), 675-676. http://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12550

EndNote reference type Journal article

Advance online publication

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. Advance online publication. DOI address

In-text reference

(Allan, 2010)

Allan (2010) found that ....

Reference list

Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Add Advance online publication to Article Number field

Article in press

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. DOI address

In-text reference

(Baldwin & Keefer, in press)

Baldwin and Keefer (in press) stated that ....

Reference list

Baldwin, M., & Keefer, L. A. (in press). Being here and now: The benefits of belonging in space and time. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00214-7

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Put “in press” in year field

Cochrane Systematic Review

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI address.

In-text reference

(Shaw et al., 2005)

Shaw et al. (2005) stated that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Article number (instead of page numbers)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue number), Article article number. DOI address

In-text reference

(de Boer et al., 2014)

de Boer et al. (2014) stated that ....

Reference list

de Boer, M. J., Steinhagen, H. E., Versteegen, G. J., Struys, M. M. R. F., & Sanderman, R. (2014). Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain. PloS One, 9(1), Article e87445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087445

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Put Article article number in the Pages field