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APA 6th referencing style

A guide to using the APA 6th referencing style.

DOI or web address?

  • If the journal article has a digital object identifier (DOI), include this in your reference.
  • If there is no DOI and you have accessed the article electronically, include the web address of the journal's homepage in which the article was published in your reference.
  • You can check if an article has a DOI at CrossRef.
  • Not all articles will have a DOI.

Print journal article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s).

In-text reference

(Lowrie & Diezmann, 2009)

Lowrie and Diezmann (2009) have found that ....

Reference list

Lowrie, T., & Diezmann, C. M. (2009). National numeracy tests: A graphic tells a thousand words. Australian Journal of Education, 53, 141-158.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article (print or electronic) with DOI – one author – paginated by issue

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Osman, 2010)

OR

Osman (2010) thought that….

Reference list

The volume number is in italics

Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 65-86. doi: 10.1037/a0017815

EndNote reference type

Journal article (print)

Electronic article 

Journal article with DOI – two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Kerrigan & Kingdon, 2010)

Kerrigan and Kingdon (2010) mentioned that ....

Reference list

Kerrigan, A. M., & Kingdon, C. (2010). Maternal obesity and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Midwifery, 26, 138-146. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI–three to five authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time the reference appears; for all subsequent uses, cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”

First use: (Skenderian, Siegel, Crano, Alvaro, & Lac, 2008)

Skenderian, Siegel, Crano, Alvaro, and Lac (2008) have argued that ....

Subsequent uses: (Skenderian et al., 2008)

Skenderian et al. (2008) stated that ....

Reference list

Include all authors up to seven.

Skenderian, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Lac, A., & Alvaro, E. E. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents' intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 563-569. doi:10.1037/a0013020

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI – six authors or more

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

Use only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, for every use of the reference.

(Wolchik et al., 2008)

Wolchik et al. (2008) have said that ....

Reference list

Include all authors up to seven names.

For eight or more, include the first six, then an ellipsis - ... - followed by the last author's name.

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., . . . Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.843

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI - continuous pagination throughout volume

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Wilens & Biederman, 2006)

Wilens and Biederman (2006) argued that ....

Reference list

Issue number is not required.

Wilens, T.E., & Biederman J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. doi:10.1177/0269881105058776

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI – available in advance in an online publication (no volume, issue or pages)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Allan, 2010)

Allan (2010) found that ....

Reference list

Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002

EndNote reference type Electronic article

Cochrane Review with DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005)

Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, and Kenardy (2005 found that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (2). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article accessed electronically, without DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Fallon & Engel, 2008)

Fallon and Engel (2008) argued that ....

Reference list

Fallon, A., & Engel, C. (2008). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The Practising Midwife, 11(9), 1-27. Retrieved from http://www.practisingmidwife.co.uk

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Add the web address of the journal's website (subscription-based journals), or the full web address of the article (when available for free) to the URL field

Journal article – in press

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Williams & Beattie, in press)

Williams and Beattie (in press) stated that ....

Reference list

Williams, S., & Beattie, H. J. (in press). Problem based learning in the clinical setting – a systematic review. Nurse Education Today.

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Put “in press” in year field

Article from UQ eReserve

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from University of Queensland Library E-Reserve.

In-text reference

(Shaw, 2003)

Shaw (2003) argued that ....

Reference list

Shaw, J. (2003). Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Medical Journal of Australia,179, 379-383. Retrieved from University of Queensland Library E-Reserve.

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Put “University of Queensland Library E-Reserve” in URL field