A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.
If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks.
David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show." (Dickens, 1869, p. 1)
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages
must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe)
on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously.
(Dickens, 1896, p. 1)
If you have directly quoted words from a source (in inverted commas, or in an indented paragraph), provide the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation. (For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number.)
Include a complete reference in the reference list.
The citation in the text will look like this: (Smith, 2003, p. 105) or (Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50) or (Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50; Smith, 2003, p. 105)