Skip to main content

APA 6th referencing style

A guide to using the APA 6th referencing style.

One author

Elements of citation

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman, 1994)

OR

Berkman (1994) claimed that …
Reference list

Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. New York, NY: Harper Perrenial.

Endnote reference type Book

Two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Always list the authors in the order in which they appear in the publication.

Cite both authors for each use of reference.

Examples:

It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir & Jessel, 1991)

OR

Moir and Jessel (1991) found students…

Reference list

Moir, A. & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. London, England: Mandarin.

EndNote reference type Book

Three to five authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time the reference appears; for all subsequent uses, cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”

Examples:

First instance: (O’Keefe, Bell, & Wyne, 2009)

Subsequent Uses: (O’Keefe et al., 2009)

OR

First instance: O’Keefe, Bell, and Wyne (2009) 

Subsequent Uses: O’Keefe et al. (2009) stated that ...

Reference list

O'Keefe, J. H., Bell, D. S. H., & Wyne, K.L. (2009). Diabetes essentials. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

EndNote reference type Book

Six or seven authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite just the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and year for the first and all other citations

Churchill et al. (2013) argue …

OR

It was argued that…(Churchill et al., 2013)

Reference list

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N. F., Keddie, A., Lets, W., & Mackay, J. (2013). Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney, Australia: Wiley.

EndNote reference type Book

Eight or more authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite just the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and year for the first and all other citations

Johnson et al. (2005) argue …

OR

It was argued that…(Johnson et al., 2005)

Reference list

Cite the last names & initials of the first six authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name.

Example:

Johnson, L., Lewis, K., Peters, M., Harris, Y., Moreton, G., Morgan, B., . . . Smith, P. (2005). How far is far? London, England: McMillan.

EndNote reference type Book

No author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication).Title of book - italicised Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year.

Management is defined as (CCH Macquarie Dictionary, 1993)

OR

CCH Macquarie Dictionary (1993) defines…

Reference list

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). North Ryde, Australia: CCH Australia.

EndNote reference type Book

Author identified as anonymous

Elements of the reference

Anonymous - only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Anonymous, 1996)

Use only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”

Reference list

Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors : A novel of politics. New York, NY: Random House.

EndNote reference type Book

Authors with same last name

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 

If the same author last name is found as second, third etc authors, initials are NOT used.

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis, Edwards & Galbraith, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis, Edwards & Galbraith (2015) found that .....

Reference list

Lewis, J. P. (2007). Fundamentals of project management. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Lewis, R. (2007). Human genetics : concepts and applications. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Lewis, S., Edwards, D., & Galbraith, D. (2015). Increasing human dominance of tropical forests. Science, 349(6250), 827-832. doi:10.1126/science.aaa9932

EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

List years chronologically 

…geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott, 2004, 2006).

Willmott (2004, 2006) found that ...

Reference list

Order chronologically from earliest in the reference list

Willmott, W.F . (2004). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Southern Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

Willmott, W.F. (2006). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Central Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

a, b, c etc suffixes are assigned in reference list according to title.

(Dawkins, 1996a, 1996b)

Dawkins (1996a, 1996b) has argued ...

Reference list

Order alphabetically by title in the Reference list, giving first title "a" suffix to year and so on.

Dawkins, R. (1996a). Climbing Mount Improbable. London, England: Viking.

Dawkins, R. (1996b). River out of Eden. London, England: Phoenix.

EndNote reference type Book

Book by an organisation or institution (corporate author)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Queensland Health, 2002)

Queensland Health (2002) recommends that….

Reference list

Queensland Health. (2002). Best practice guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

EndNote reference type

Book

Add a comma , after each corporate author eg. Queensland Health, in the Author field

Different editions

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised (Edition number ed.). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(DeHart, Sroufe, & Cooper, 1995)

DeHart, Sroufe, and Cooper (1995) state the idea that…

Reference list

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R. G. (1995). Child development: Its nature and course (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

EndNote reference type Book

Edited book

Elements of the reference

Editor(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple editors. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Treat multiple editors same as multiple authors

(Friedman & Wachs, 1999)

(Everson, 1991)

Reference list

Friedman, S. L., & Wachs, T. D. (Eds.). (1999). Measuring environment across the life span: emerging methods and concepts.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Everson, S. (Ed.). (1991). Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type Edited book

Electronic version of print book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. [Provider of electronc version]. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. [Provider of electronic version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(De Lara & Doyen, 2008)

(Ardia, 2008)

Reference list

Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in square brackets.

De Lara, M., & Doyen, L. (2008). Sustainable management of natural resources: Mathematical models and methods. [SpringerLink version]. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp? genre=book&isbn=978-3-540-79073-0

Ardia, D. (2008). Financial risk management with Bayesian estimation of GARCH models: Theory and applications [SpringerLink version]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-78657-3

EndNote reference type

Electronic book

Enter the Digital Object Identifier of the book in the DOI field.

If the book has no DOI, use the URL field and enter the full web address of the e-book if it was only published electronically.

If the book was originally published in print, enter the web address of the homepage of the website on which it is available.

Electronic-only book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication).Title of book - italicised. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

Use n.d. when no year available

(Stevens, n.d.)

Stevens (n..d.) stated that ....

Reference list

Stevens, K. (n.d.) The dreamer and the beast. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=332

EndNote reference type Electronic book

Translation of a book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised (Translator name - first initial. last name, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference (Ylinen, 2008)
Reference list

Ylinen, J. (2008). Stretching therapy: For sport and manual therapies (J. Nurmenniemi, Trans.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.

EndNote reference type

Book

Enter translator’s name in Translator field