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Chicago 17th edition footnotes and bibliography

Footnotes and Bibliography for the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition

About Chicago 17th

The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles. There is the Notes and Bibliography Style (the subject of this guide), and the Author-Date System (a variation of the Harvard style).

While the Notes & Bibliography Style allows for either footnotes or endnotes, this guide will deal with footnotes. Bibliographic citations are provided in footnotes, supplemented by a bibliography at the end of the document. Your footnotes and bibliography should identify references cited (eg. book, journal article, webpage, video) in sufficient detail so that others may locate and consult your references. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.

Punctuation marks and spaces within the citation are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing as given in the examples.

A note may look like this:

1. Alastair Blanshard, Hercules: A Heroic Life (London: Granta, 2006), 151.

While a bibliographic entry may look like this:

Blanshard, Alastair. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta, 2006.

Any subsequent lines in a reference are on a hanging indent.  A hanging indent is an indent that indents all text except the first line.

This guide is based on The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition.

What's New in Chicago 17 Notes-Bibliography

Amongst many changes some of the more important include:

The use of ibid. is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. (14.29)

Expanded information on personal communications, including texts and posts through social media (14.214)

Expanded information on the elements of multimedia citations (14.261)

New information on permalinks (14.9)

New information on the use of short URLs (14.10)

Citing locations in electronic formats without fixed pages (14.160)

For a full list see What’s New in the 17th Edition