This referencing style guide provides a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others when you use them in your own work.
Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:
The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles. There is the Notes and Bibliography Style (the subject of this guide), and the Author-Date System (a variation of the Harvard style).
While the Notes & Bibliography Style allows for either footnotes or endnotes, this guide will deal with footnotes. Bibliographic citations are provided in footnotes, supplemented by a bibliography at the end of the document. Your footnotes and bibliography should identify references cited (eg. book, journal article, webpage, video) in sufficient detail so that others may locate and consult your references. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.
Punctuation marks and spaces within the citation are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing as given in the examples.
A note may look like this:
1. Alastair Blanshard, Hercules: A Heroic Life (London: Granta, 2006), 151.
While a bibliographic entry may look like this:
Blanshard, Alastair. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta, 2006.
Any subsequent lines in a reference are on a hanging indent. A hanging indent is an indent that indents all text except the first line.
Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style:
Amongst many changes some of the more important include:
The use of ibid. for subsequent citations is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. (14.29)
Expanded information on personal communications, including texts and posts through social media (14.214)
Expanded information on the elements of multimedia citations (14.261)
New information on permalinks (14.9)
New information on the use of short URLs (14.10)
Citing locations in electronic formats without fixed pages (14.160)
For a full list see What’s New in the 17th Edition