The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles. There is the Notes and Bibliography Style (the subject of this guide), and the Author-Date System (a variation of the Harvard style).
While the Notes & Bibliography Style allows for either footnotes or endnotes, this guide will deal with footnotes. Bibliographic citations are provided in footnotes, supplemented by a bibliography at the end of the document. Your footnotes and bibliography should identify references cited (eg. book, journal article, webpage, video) in sufficient detail so that others may locate and consult your references. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text.
Punctuation marks and spaces within the citation are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing as given in the examples.
A note may look like this:
1. Alastair Blanshard, Hercules: A Heroic Life (London: Granta, 2006), 151.
While a bibliographic entry may look like this:
Blanshard, Alastair. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta, 2006.
Any subsequent lines in a reference are on a hanging indent. A hanging indent is an indent that indents all text except the first line.
It is important to understand the basics of referencing and why it is important.
A referencing style is a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others in a particular way. Different types of sources eg. books, articles, each have a specific format, determined by the referencing style you are using.
Referencing is a crucial part of successful academic writing, avoiding plagiarism and maintaining academic integrity in your assignments and research.
Watch Introduction to referencing (YouTube 3m43s) to learn about the basics of referencing.
Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:
Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style:
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Note: This guide was updated on 23rd June, 2023