The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different types of reference styles. There is the Notes and Bibliography Style, and the Author-Date System (a variation of the Harvard style). This Guide is for the Author-Date system.
In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.
An intext reference may look like (Blanshard 2006, 151) while its reference entry may look like:
Blanshard, Alastair. 2006. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta.
Any subsequent lines in a reference are on a hanging indent. A hanging indent is an indent that indents all text except the first line.
Most of the recommendations in the notes and bibliographies version of Chicago 17th edition are identical for the author-date system.
Unlike notes and bibliography style, each entry in the reference list must correspond to a work cited in the text.
Punctuation marks and spaces within the citation are very important. Follow the punctuation and spacing as given in the examples.
Be careful where you input information into fields in the reference types in Endnote as the same information may need to be placed in different fields for different styles. This is particularly relevant to inputting of dates.
It is important to understand the basics of referencing and why it is important.
A referencing style is a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others in a particular way. Different types of sources eg. books, articles, each have a specific format, determined by the referencing style you are using.
Referencing is a crucial part of successful academic writing, avoiding plagiarism and maintaining academic integrity in your assignments and research.
Watch Introduction to referencing (YouTube 3m43s) to learn about the basics of referencing.
Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:
Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style:
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Note: This guide was updated on 23rd June, 2023