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Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th edition

This is a short guide to the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th ed)

Subsequent or repeated references

After citing a work in full the first time, you may use Ibid or n for subsequent references to the citation. For further information, see AGLC4 rule 1.4 at p 9.


A shortened version of the ibidem, ibid means 'in the same book, passage etc.'1, and should be used when referring to the immediately preceding footnote. It is not necessary to repeat the pinpoint reference where it is exactly the same, however, if you were referring to the same source but a different page than you would need to include the pinpoint.

The full AGLC4 rule subsequent references can be found at 1.4 on p. 9.


  1. R W Burchfield, The New Fowler's Modern English Usage (Oxford University Press, 3rd ed, 1996) 374.
  2. Ibid. 
  3. Ibid 375.

n [footnote number]

n refers the reader to to a footnote where the citation can be found in full. It is not used to refer to immediately preceding footnotes, except where the immediately preceding footnote contains multiple sources. See AGLC4 general rule 1.4.1 at p 9 for further information


  1. R W Burchfield, The New Fowler's Modern English Usage (Oxford University Press, 3rd ed, 1996) 374.
  2. Terry Hutchinson, Researching and Writing in Law (Lawbook, 2nd ed, 2006) 51.
  3. Burchfield (n 1).
  4. ...
  5. Burchfield (n 1) 375.

Consider using Word's cross-reference feature to add the original footnote number.

Adding cross-references with Microsoft Word

When you refer to a subsequent reference in your Word document you will need to add a footnote number e.g. Burchfield (n 1) 375. Unlike other footnotes in your document, these numbers will not automatically update if you add additional footnotes to your document.

Use the cross-reference feature in Word when adding the footnote number in subsequent references to avoid needing to manually update the footnote number.

  1. Place your cursor after the n
  2. Select the References toolbar and Cross Reference
  3. Reference Type should be Footnote (and untick “insert as hyperlink”)
  4. Select the footnote where you first cited the resource and select insert.
  5. Close

Word will update the cross-reference if needed if you access the print preview screen or print the document.

Short titles

When a short title (shortened form of the title or source) is first cited it should be introduced to both the text and the footnotes. ('Short Title') For more information and examples see AGLC4  rule 1.4.4 on p 12