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AMJ (Academy of Management Journal) referencing style

In-text citations

Citations are the in-text identifications of other sources you have referred to in your document. Every work that has a citation in-text needs to have a corresponding reference in the reference list at the end of your document.

In an author-date style, such as the Academy of Management Journal, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses. 


  • Name and Year, two authors - Discourses are changed through the production, distribution, and consumption of texts (Hardy & Phillips, 2004).
  • Year only – Bourassa (1999) emphasised …

Page numbers are included in the in-text citation if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page or pages. Use the following format - (Author(s), Year: Page number(s))


  • Single page - Writing a book is “a long and arduous task” (Lee, 1998: 3)  
  • Multiple pages - Few scholars have developed theories in which organizations are the primary actors (Stern & Barley, 1996: 148-149).

Multiple works within the same reference

Two or more works by different authors within the same reference

Order authors alphabetically, separating each author (or group of authors) with a semi-colon.


Several studies (Adams, 1994; Bernstein, 1988; Celias, 2000a, 2000b) support this conclusion.

Multiple works by one author

Designate two or more works by one author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year by adding "a," "b," and so forth, after the year. See example above.

Citing multiple authors

If a work has two authors, give both names every time you cite it.

For three through to six authors, give all the names the first time, then use "et al." in subsequent citations.


  • First citation - (Foster, Whittington, Tucker, Horner, Hubbard & Grimm, 2000)
  • Subsequent citations - (Foster et al., 2000)

For seven or more authors, use "et al." for all citations, including the first. (Note: Ensure that the corresponding reference in the reference list contains all names).

Citation with no author

If an article has no author, cite the journal title as author.


  • Analysts predicted an increase in service jobs (Wall Street Journal, 1999).

For reports, handbooks, and the like, cite the "corporate author" that produced the document.


  • Organisation as author - Analysts predict an increase in service jobs in the U.S. Industrial Outlook (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1992).

Citing a secondary source

If you have not seen the original work, but have been made aware of it through another reference (also known as a secondary source), name the original work and provide the citation for the secondary source in both the in-text citation and reference list.


  • Organisations are concentrating more on the “attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of employees” (Parker, 1996 as cited by Johnson, 1999: 216). 


  • According to Parker (1996 as cited by Johnson, 1999: 216), organisations are concentrating more on the “attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of employees”.