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AMJ (Academy of Management Journal) referencing style - Print version

This is the print version of the AMJ referencing style guide. To print, go to the end of the page and click 'Print Page', or use the browser's Print or "Save as" tools.

About AMJ

About AMJ

The Academy of Management Journal style is an author-date style designed for articles published in The Academy of Management Journal. 

Where the AMJ style guide does not address specific resource types UQ Library will apply the basic elements of the AMJ guideline to address the resource type.


What is referencing?

Referencing is a standardised way of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas that you have used in your document.

Why reference?

Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, to show that you have researched the topic and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work.

Steps in referencing 

  • Keep a record of the full bibliographic details and relevant page numbers of all the sources from which information is taken
  • Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your assignment. These are known as in-text citations
  • Compile a reference list at the end of the assignment that includes the full details of all references cited.

Always check with your course coordinator, lecturer or tutor about the bibliographic style preferred for your course. 


EndNote Referencing Software

In-text citations

In-text citations

Citations are the in-text identifications of other sources you have referred to in your document. Every work that has a citation in-text needs to have a corresponding reference in the reference list at the end of your document.

In an author-date style, such as the Academy of Management Journal, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses. 

Examples 

  • Name and Year, two authors - Discourses are changed through the production, distribution, and consumption of texts (Hardy & Phillips, 2004).
  • Year only – Bourassa (1999) emphasised …

Page numbers are included in the in-text citation if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page or pages. Use the following format - (Author(s), Year: Page number(s))

Examples

  • Single page - Writing a book is “a long and arduous task” (Lee, 1998: 3)  
  • Multiple pages - Few scholars have developed theories in which organizations are the primary actors (Stern & Barley, 1996: 148-149).

Multiple works within the same reference

Two or more works by different authors within the same reference

Order authors alphabetically, separating each author (or group of authors) with a semi-colon.

Example

Several studies (Adams, 1994; Bernstein, 1988; Celias, 2000a, 2000b) support this conclusion.


Multiple works by one author

Designate two or more works by one author (or by an identical group of authors) published in the same year by adding "a," "b," and so forth, after the year. See example above.

Citing multiple authors

If a work has two authors, give both names every time you cite it.


For three through to six authors, give all the names the first time, then use "et al." in subsequent citations.

Examples

  • First citation - (Foster, Whittington, Tucker, Horner, Hubbard & Grimm, 2000)
  • Subsequent citations - (Foster et al., 2000)

For seven or more authors, use "et al." for all citations, including the first. (Note: Ensure that the corresponding reference in the reference list contains all names).

Citation with no author

If an article has no author, cite the journal title as author. 

Example 

  • Analysts predicted an increase in service jobs (Wall Street Journal, 1999)

For reports, handbooks, and the like, cite the "corporate author" that produced the document.

Example

  • Organisation as author - Analysts predict an increase in service jobs in the U.S. Industrial Outlook (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1992).

Citing a secondary source

If you have not seen the original work, but have been made aware of it through another reference (also known as a secondary source), name the original work and provide the citation for the secondary source in both the in-text citation and reference list.

Examples   

  • Organisations are concentrating more on the “attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of employees” (Parker, 1996 as cited by Johnson, 1999: 216). 

or 

  • According to Parker (1996 as cited by Johnson, 1999: 216), organisations are concentrating more on the “attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of employees”.

Reference list

Reference List

References are your entries in the alphabetical list at the end of your document. This list should include only work you have cited in your assignment.

  • References should be listed in alphabetic order by the last name of a sole author, a first author, an editor, or by the name of a corporate author. If an item has no author or editor, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title
  • References should include the name of all of the authors in the order in which they appear on the publication. 
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication. 
  • If an author has published more than one publication in the same year, differentiate entries by adding small letters after the years (e.g. 2000a, 2000b). Repeat the author's name for each entry.
  • Each reference appears on a new line. 
  • There is no numbering of the references. 
  • Use single line spacing with a double line of space between references. 
  • Each reference should be presented with a hanging indent, that is, indent the second and subsequent lines of the reference by one tab space.  

EndNote Referencing Software

The University of Queensland Library provides access to EndNote which assist in creating reference lists. If you are using EndNote, download the Academy of Management Journal Style from the EndNote Styles page.

Example reference list - AMJ Style

AMA. 1994. 1994 American Management Association survey on downsizing and assistance to displaced workers. New York: American Management Association. 

Baker, W. E., & Sinkula, J. M. 2005. Environmental marketing strategy and firm performance: Effect on new product performance and market share. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33: 461–475. 

Cabinet Office. 2001. Annual report on Japan’s economy and public finance 2000–2001. Tokyo: Government of Japan. 

Colby, M. E. 1990. Environmental management in development: The evolution of paradigms. WDP-80. World Bank Discussion Paper. Washington DC: World Bank.

IEEE Computer Society/Association for Computing Machinery: Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula. 2004. Curriculum guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in software engineering. Accessed online http://sites.computer.org/ccse/. Viewed February, 27 2009. 

ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2002. The ISO survey of ISO 9000 and ISO14001certificates. Accessed online https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/archive/pdf/en/survey10thcycle.pdf. Viewed January 25, 2018. 

Kumar, V., & Luo, M. 2006. Linking an individual’s brand value to the customer lifetime value: An integrated framework. American Marketing Association Winter Educators’ Conference, Chicago, Proceedings, 17: 152. 

Levina, N. 2001. Multi-party information systems development: The challenge of crossboundary collaboration. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. 

Lichtenthaler, U., Ernst, H., & Lichtenthaler, E. 2005. Desorptive capacity: A capability-based perspective on external knowledge exploitation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Honolulu. 

Miller, S. C. 1992. Networking: Managing systems with thousands of users. New York Times, September 27: 3–8. 

Morrison, A. M., White, R. P., & Van Velsor, E. 1987. Breaking the glass ceiling: Can women reach the top of America’s largest corporations? Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 

Wilson, J. D. 1996. Capital mobility and environmental standards: Is there a theoretical basis for a race to the bottom? In J. Bhagwati & R. R. Hudec (Eds.), Fair trade and harmonization: Prerequisites for free trade, vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 

Wouters, K., Tesluk, P. E., & Buyens, D. 2007. Managerial learning from high responsibility assignments: The role of perceived challenge and emotions of pleasant activation. Working paper, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. 

York, J. G., O’Neil, I., & Sarasvathy, S. D. 2016. Exploring environmental entrepreneurship: Identity coupling, venture goals, and stakeholder incentives. Journal of Management Studies, 53: 695–737.

Appendix

An appendix, or appendices, can be used to present long but essential material that would otherwise clog up the body of the document, for example, methodological details such as the calculation of measures, or extracts from a survey.

  • Be concise. Only include that detail which is essential to supporting the purpose of the document. 
  • Label appendices "APPENDIX A," "APPENDIX B," and so forth.
  • Label tables within appendices "Table A1," "Table B1" and so forth

Book

Elements of the citation - Book

Author(s) of book – Last name, initials. Year of publication. Title of book bold and italicised. Edition (in brackets), Volume number (if applicable) – vol. (#). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: For book titles, capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon or long dash.

Single author

Reference type Example
In-text example IMF programs are project-based, with a specified scope usually centred on legal and governmental action  (Vreeland, 2003).
Reference list example Vreeland, J. R. 2003. The IMF and economic development.  Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
EndNote reference type Book

Two authors

Reference type Example
In-text examples

Brower and Balch (2005) found …

or

A decision making pedagogy is an important tool for school leaders (Brower & Balch, 2005).

Reference list example

Brower, R. E., & Balch, B. V. 2005. Transformational  leadership & decision making in schools. Thousand  Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

EndNote reference type Book

Three to six authors

Reference type Example
In-text examples

‚ÄčFirst citation: … as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons, & Green, 1989)

Subsequent citations: … (Reid et al., 1989)

Reference list example

Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B., & Green, C. W., 1989. Staff  management in human services: Behavioral  research and application.  Springfield: Charles C.  Thomas.

EndNote reference type Book

Seven or more authors

Reference type Example
In-text examples

List first author then “et al.” for all citations, including the first citation. (e.g. Green, et al., 2003)

Reference list example

Give the names of all the authors in the reference.

EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author

Reference type Example
In-text examples

… behavioral patterns and organizational processes that warned of impending problems, (Khurana, 2002, 2007)

Reference list example

Khurana, R. 2002. Searching for a corporate savior:  The irrational quest for charismatic CEOs.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Khurana, R. 2007. From higher aims to hired hands:  The social transformation of American  business schools and the unfulfilled promise  of management as a profession. Princeton,  NJ: Princeton University Press. 

Order chronologically in the reference list, earliest listed first.

EndNote reference type Book

No author

Reference type Example
In-text example

Management is defined as … (CCH Macquarie Dictionary, 1993)

or

CCH Macquarie Dictionary (1993) defines…

Cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year.

Reference list example

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. 1993, North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia.  

EndNote reference type Dictionary

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Reference type Example
In-text example (Dawkins, 1996a, 1996b)
Reference list example

Dawkins, R. 1996a. Climbing Mount Improbable. London: Viking. 

Dawkins, R. 1996b. River out of Eden. London: Phoenix. 

Order alphabetically by title in the Reference list

EndNote reference type Book

Book by an organisation or institution

Reference type Example
In-text example Combined assets of market funds…(World Bank,1997)
Reference list example

World Bank. 1997. Private capital flows to developing  countries: The road to financial integration.  Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

EndNote reference type Book

Edited book

Reference type Example
In-text example … some findings (ed. Sjostrand 1993)
Reference list example

Sjostrand, S (Ed.). 1993. Institutional change: Theory  and empirical findings. Armonk. N.Y.: M.E.  Sharpe

EndNote reference type Edited book

Book chapter

Elements of the citation - Chapter in a book

Author(s) of chapter – Last name, initials. Year of publication. Title of chapter. In Editors' initials and last names (Eds.), Title of book – bold and italicised, Volume number (if applicable): Page numbers. Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: For book chapter titles, capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon or long dash.

Chapter in an edited book

Reference type Example
In-text example

Discourses are changed through the production, distribution and consumption of texts (Hardy & Phillips, 2004).

Use the chapter authors, not the editors of the book.

Reference list example

Hardy, C., & Phillips, N. 2004. Discourse and power. In D.  Grant, C. Hardy, C. Oswick, & L. Putnam (Eds.),  Handbook of organizational discourse: 219– 318. London: Sage

EndNote Reference Type Book section

Chapter in an edited book with volume number

Reference type Example
In-text example

... allows for the accumulation of specific experience (Levitt & March, 1988), ...

Use the chapter authors, not the editors of the book.

Reference list example

Levitt, B., & March, J. G. 1988. Organizational learning. In W. R. Scott & J. F. Short (Eds.), Annual review of sociology, 14: 319–340. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.

EndNote Reference Type Book section

Journal article

Elements of the citation - Journal article

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials. Year of publication. Title of journal article. Title of journal bold and italicised, Volume number (Issue number if needed – see below): Page numbers. 

For journal article titles capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon

Journal article

Reference type Example
In-text example ... in their extent of institutionalization (Dorado, 2005) ...
Reference list example

Dorado, S. 2005. Institutional entrepreneurship, partaking, and convening. Organization Studies, 26: 385– 414.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article requiring issue number

Reference type Example
In-text example (De Meuse & Tornow, 1990)
Reference list example

De Meuse, K. P., & Tornow, W. W. 1990. The tie that  binds—has become very, very frayed! Human  Resource Planning, 13(3): 203–213

Include an issue number only if every issue of the referenced journal begins with a page numbered 1. Look at more than one issue to check.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article - 2 authors

Reference type Example
In-text example The majority shareholding enables the family to effectively exercise control over management to prevent misbehaviour (Shleifer & Vishny, 1997).
Reference list example Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. 1997. A survey of corporate  governance. Journal of Finance, 52: 737–783.
EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article - 3 to 6 authors

Reference type Example
In-text example

First citation

… as long as the data are missing at random (Ployhart, Holtz, & Bliese, 2002)

Second citation

As previously calculated (Ployhart et al., 2002)

Reference list example

Ployhart, R. E., Holtz, B. C., & Bliese, P. D. 2002. Longitudinal data analysis: Applications of random coefficient modeling to leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 13: 455–486.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article - 7 or more authors

Reference type Example
In-test example

(First author et al., Year)

List first author then "et al." for all citations, including the first citation.

Reference list example Give the names of all the authors in the reference.
EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article - No author

Reference type Example
In-text example

... (Harvard Business Review, 2003).

For an article with no author, cite the journal as author.

Reference list example

Harvard Business Review. 2003. How are we doing? 81(4): 3. 

EndNote reference type Journal article

Conference paper

Elements of the citation - Conference paper

Author(s) of paper – family name and initials. Year of publication. Title of paper. Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s)bold and italicised, Place of Publication, Publisher Page number(s).

For conference paper titles capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon.

Published conference paper

Reference type Example
In-text example Kumar (2006) emphasized ...
Reference list example

Kumar, V., & Luo, M. 2006. Linking an individual’s brand  value to the customer lifetime value: An integrated  framework. American Marketing Association Winter Educators’ Conference, Chicago, Proceedings, 17: 152.

EndNote reference type Conference proceeding

Unpublished conference paper

Reference type Example
In-text example Perttula (2003) defined passion for one’s work as “a psychological state characterized by intense positive emotional arousal, internal drive and full engagement.” 
Reference list example

Perttula, K. M. 2003. The POW factor: Understanding  passion for one’s work. Paper presented at the annual  meeting of the Academy of Management, Seattle. 

EndNote reference type Conference paper

Report

Elements of the citation - Report

Print report:

Author(s) of report – (person or organisation). Year of Publication. Title of report bold and italicised. Report number (if available). Place of publication: Publisher/ Institution.

Online report:

Author(s) of report – (person or organisation). Year of Publication. Title of report bold and italicised. Report number (if available), Document type (if appropriate). Accessed online URL. Viewed date-in-full (Month Day, Year).

Report with known author

Reference type Example
In-text example Emissions trading schemes… (Garnaut, 2008). 
Reference list example

Garnaut, R. 2008. Garnaut climate change review: Final  report. Port Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge  University Press. 

EndNote reference type Report

Report by corporate author - online

Reference type Example
In-text example ... women throughout the value chain (Coca-Cola, 2017: 14). 
Reference list example

The Coca-Cola Company. 2017. 2016 sustainability report. Accessed online http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf. Viewed January 12, 2018. 

EndNote reference type Report

Government report - online

Reference type Example
In-text example "... review the quality control framework for the remission of penalties and interest" (Australian National Audit Office, 2017). 
Reference list example

Australian National Audit Office. 2017. Audits of the Financial Statements of Australian Government Entities for the Period Ended 30 June 2017. ANAO Report No. 24 2017-18. Canberra. Accessed online https://www.anao.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3721/f/ANAO_Report_2017-2018_24.pdf. Viewed November 29, 2017.

EndNote reference type Report

Report from online database

Reference type Example
In-text citation "Such broad connectivity has ... spawned a whole new era in consumerism" (Euromonitor International, 2017)
Reference List

Euromonitor International. 2017. Connected consumers: "Can do" versus "should do" thinking. Passport database, December. Viewed January 25, 2017.

EndNote Report

When referencing a report or similar document from a Library database, do not include the URL. Include the name of the database and the date you accessed it. Ensure that you differentiate between the name of the database and the author or publisher of the information. In the example above, the organisation/corporate author is the publisher, Euromonitor International, who provided the information through the Passport database. 

Technical report

Reference type Example
In-text example ... the Big Five Inventory of John, Donahue and Kentle (1991: 1773)
Reference list

John, O.P., Donahue, E.M., & Kentle, R.L. 1991. The Big Five Inventory - Versions 4a and 54.  Technical report. Berkeley, CA.: Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California 

EndNote Report

 

Working paper

Reference type Example
In-text example ... (Eggers & Suh, 2015)
Reference list

Eggers, J.P. 7 Suh, J.-H. 2015. Experience and behavior: How failures in new and experienced domains affect firm action and subsequent performance. Working paper, New York University. 

EndNote Report

Newspaper and magazine article

Elements of the citation - Newspaper and magazine

Author(s) of article – family name and initials. Year of publication. Title of article, Title of newspaper – bold and italicised, Month Day: Page numbers.

For newspaper article titles capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon.

Newspaper article (print) with author

Reference type Example
In-text example It has become shown (Miller, 1992) ...
Reference list example

Miller, S. C. 1992. Networking: Managing systems with thousands of users. New York Times, September 27: 3–8.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article with no author

Reference type Example
In-text example ... in the Advertiser (23 October 2001: 10).
Reference list example

Advertiser, The. 2001. Federal election: new Chipp in politics. The Advertiser. October 23: 10.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article (online)

Reference type Example
In-text example Klan (2008) discusses ...
Reference list example

Klan, A. 2008. ASIC swoops on GE debt “harassment.” The Australian, May 22. Accessed online at http:// www.theaustralian.com.au/business/asic-swoopson-gedebt-collectors/story-e6frg8zx-1111116418111. Viewed 2 February, 2008

EndNote reference type

Web page

In the URL field manually add Accessed online at [URL] Viewed [DATE]

Tables and Figures

Tables and figures - reproducing and citing

AMJ provides advice on how to layout tables and figures for publication only (that is, the author's original data as published in AMJ), and not for citing other authors' tables and figures (as is done in an assignment).  Therefore, the following is suggested:

  • For the bibliography refer to the source type from which the table/figure is sourced.  Is it from a journal article, a book, a newspaper, etc?
  • Apply the rules for in-text citations. Treat the citing of figures and tables as a direct quote requiring a page number.
  • Apply the layout style as for original data in tables and figures (see Tables and figures - original data below)
    • centred, capitals for TABLE, (Author, year, page number). Example:

TABLE 1

Health eating pyramid

[TABLE inserted here]

(Author, year, page number)

Tables and figures - original data

To present original data in a table or figure, AMJ provides the following advice:

 

TABLE 1

Title of table

[TABLE inserted here]

Footnotes if required

 

  • The table or figure should be centred with TABLE or FIGURE in capitals. 
  • A footnote can be included if required to explain certain data. 
  • Each table or figure requires an introductory sentence in your text. 

AMJ recommends checking their journal for examples of how to layout original data in tables and figures.  There is more detail on rules for the layout of tables and figures in the AMJ guide.

Webpage

Elements of the citation - Webpage

Author(s) of page – (person or organisation). Year (page created or revised). Title of page bold and italicised. Description of document (if applicable), Name of the sponsor of the page (if applicable). Accessed online URL. Viewed date-in-full - Month Day, Year.

Webpage with author

Reference type Example
In-text example … this agreement (Albanese 2009).
Reference list example

Albanese, A. 2009. Fairer compensation for air travellers. Media release, January 29, Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. Accessed online http://www.minister. infrastructure.gov.au/aa/releases/2009/ January/ AA007_2009.htm. Viewed January 30, 2009.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Webpage with corporate or organisational author

Reference type Example
In-text example The Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs’ website (2009) has details of …
Reference list example

Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. 2009. The Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra. Accessed online http://www. immi.gov.au/. Viewed January 17, 2010.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Webpage with no date of publication

Reference type Example
In-text example … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.)
Reference list example

Bliss, S.E. n.d. The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions. Accessed online http://eqi.org/ mgtpaper.htm. Viewed February 10, 2008.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Blog post

Reference type Example
In-text example ... introverts may feel threatened (Feintzeig, 2014).
Reference list example

Feintzeig, R. 2014. For office introverts, a room of one’s own. Blog post. The Wall Street Journal, June 2. Accessed online http://blogs.wsj.com/atwork/2014/06/02/for-theoffice-introvert-a-room-ofones-own/. Viewed June 8, 2014.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Images

Elements of the citation - Online images

Applying AMJ's advice for electronic sources, the following examples provide advice on how to cite electronic  images (that is, found online through websites).

Author(s) of image (person, journal or organisation). Year (if known). Title of image (if known) – bold and italicised. URL.Viewed (date-in-full) - Month Day, Year.

Online image with author

Reference type Example
In-text example

(Author.Year) (or n.d. if no date on image or webpage)

Author can be a human, journal title or corporate (image website).

Reference list example

Author. Year. Title (if known). URL. Viewed  Month Day,Year

Harrison, R. 2019. Flowers.www.flowers.com. Viewed January 30, 2019.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Online image with no author

Reference type Example
In-text example

If no author add the URL and Year in parenthesis. 

(www.flowers.com. 2019)

Reference list example

If no author can be found it is not required in the reference list.

EndNote reference type Webpage

Thesis

Elements of the citation - Thesis

Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis. Title of thesis bold and italicised. Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.

For thesis titles capitalise only the first letter of the first word and the first word after a colon.

Thesis

Reference type Example
In-text example Based on Levina’s (2001) theoretical framework for understanding the boundaries involved in IS development ...
Reference list example

Levina, N. 2001. Multi-party information systems development: The challenge of cross-boundary collaboration. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

EndNote reference type Thesis

Personal communication

Elements of the citation - Personal communication

Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the reference list.

Personal communication

Reference type Example
In-text example

When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter Jones explained that …

OR

This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June).

Reference list example

Do not include in the Reference list

EndNote reference type Personal communication