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MLA 9th referencing style - print version

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About MLA 9th

About MLA 9th

The "MLA style" is an in-text style for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications, and is widely used in the fields of literature and linguistics. This guide is based on the MLA Handbook  9th edition (2021). 

MLA style uses very brief citations in the text of the document, with an alphabetical list of works cited at the end of the document. 

Always check with your lecturer or tutor about the bibliographic style preferred by the School. There may be differences in styles recommended by the School.

This "how-to" guide gives examples of common entries in the works cited list. For further information refer to the MLA Style Centre or the MLA Handbook (2021)Links to these resources may be found on this page under the "Other resources" heading.

Why reference?

It is important to understand the basics of referencing and why it is important. 

A referencing style is a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others in a particular way. Different types of sources eg. books, articles, each have a specific format, determined by the referencing style you are using.

Referencing is a crucial part of successful academic writing, avoiding plagiarism and maintaining academic integrity in your assignments and research.

Watch Introduction to referencing (YouTube 3m43s) to learn about the basics of referencing.

Publication types examples

Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:

  • consult the MLA Handbook (9th ed.) or MLA Style Centre
  • type the title of the item into Library Search to see if it has a suggested citation
  • view the reference lists of articles in publications that use MLA such as Publications of the Modern Language Association of America (check which MLA edition used)
  • adapt the rules of a similar publication type to the item
  • consult other institutions’ style guides
  • consult the Instructions to authors, if writing for a journal
  • consult with your tutor or course coordinator.

Additional referencing information

Referencing specific formats

Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style:

  • ChatGPT and other Generative AI tools:
    • Check whether you are permitted to use ChatGPT or other Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools prior to commencing your assignment.
    • If you use content from AI tools you must reference it or acknowledge it in accordance with course coordinator instructions or publisher policies.

Elements of a citation

The ninth edition of the MLA Handbook recommends a universal set of guidelines to apply to any source. The MLA core elements are:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Contributor,
  5. Version,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

When deciding how to cite a source refer to the list of core elements. The elements should be listed in the order shown and be followed by the punctuation mark shown. 

Optional elements can be included if they help the reader identify the source:

  • Date of original publication
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • DOIs or URLs

More information on the core elements, containers, a practice template and examples are available through the MLA Style Center's Works Cited: A Quick Guide.

Print or save this guide

To print or save this guide:

  1. Go to the print version of the guide
  2. Click Print Page at the end of this page or use your browser’s Print tool.
     

This guide was updated on 30 June 2023. 

In-text references

MLA in-text refernces

Please note that the following information provides general guidance on the most common questions related to MLA referencing.

For more detailed information, please refer to the Library's print copies of the MLA Handbook (9th ed.) chapter 6 or consult the MLA Style Center.

Using in-text references

  • The citation in the text consists of the author's last name only. Unlike other referencing styles, the year of publication is not included. Example:

The question of Branwell's authorship has been extensively discussed (Thomson).

  • Citations are usually placed just before a mark of punctuation, such as a comma or full stop.
  • To cite a specific page for a reference, add the page number after the name in the citation. The specific page number is essential when you have quoted text from that reference. Example:

One critic has gone so far as to assert that "it is impossible that Branwell could have written this work" (Thomson 57).

  • If the author's name appears in the text, it is not repeated in the citation. Only the page number is required. Example:

Thomson has argued that "it is impossible that Branwell could have written this work" (57).

  • If you are citing more than one reference at the same point in your document, separate the references with a semicolon. Example:

(Mortimer 138; Smith 203)

  • If your document refers to the same text, in successive references, give the full citation in the first reference, and then just the page reference in the following citation. Example:

First reference sentence (Hoggart 85). Successive reference sentence by the same author (93).

  • For time-based media such as audio and videos, cite the time display or range of times, separating the numbers with colons. Refer to the MLA Handbook section 6.28, p. 250. Example:

Buffy's reference to incidents at her old school ("Buffy" 00:03:16-17) allude to...

  • For translated works, give the source of a translation in addition to the source of the quotation. If you created the translation, insert my trans. in place of a source. Refer to the MLA Handbook section 6.75, pp. 281-282.

Other in-text referencing rules relating to author names

Corporate author

A corporate author should be used in the citation where applicable. In an in-text reference, use a shortened form of the name when referring to a corporate author. This shortened form would consist of the shortest noun phrase (refer to MLA Handbook section 6.6, p. 233). For example, the Modern Language Association of America may shortened to its initial noun phrase Modern Language Association.

When you have a resource where the author is also the publisher, the reference in the list of works cited will omit the author and begin with the title and the organisation listed as the publisher. For this type of reference, the in-text citation will contain a shortened version of the title (refer to MLA Handbook sections 6.9-6.14, p. 237-241 for more on shortened titles).

Examples

According to the Annual Report 2015-2016 over 20% of Queensland children aged 0-8 years live in rural and remote areas (21).

OR

Over 20% of Queensland children aged 0-8 years live in rural and remove areas (Annual Report 21).


No known author

If a work is published where the author's name is unknown, skip the author and use the title or shortened title in your in-text citation. 

Example

The poem begins, "'The boneless tongue, so small and weak, / Can crush and kill,' declared the Greek" ("A-Propos" 94) ... 


Two different authors with the same last name

Use the first name of each author in your prose every time they are referred to in the general text of your work to avoid ambiguity. Add the first initial (or the full name if necessary) to differentiate authors with the same last name in the in-text references.

Example

(E. Brontë)


Additional works by the same author

Include a short form of the sources title to differentiate the works you are referring to.

Example

(Green, Turtles 16)

Direct quotations

What is direct quotation?

A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.

Use of quotations should be selective, particularly apt, and as brief as possible. Quotes must reproduce the original source exactly. 

Short quotes

If the quotation is fewer than four lines of prose or more than three lines of verse and requires no special emphasis, incorporate it into your paragraph an enclose it in double quotation marks. To include two or three lines of verse, use a forward slash ( / ) to indicate line breaks and two forward slashes ( // ) to indicate a stanza break.

Examples

One critic has gone so far as to assert that "it is impossible that Branwell could have written this work" (Thomson 57).

Weare uses Australian insults, such as "from Beyond-the-Black-Stump hicks / to Bogan Western Sydney chicks" (120) ...


Long quotes

If the quotation comprises of more than four lines when run into your text, display it as an indented (half an inch from the left margin), freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. Use a colon to introduce the quotation, except when the introductory wording requires a different punctuation mark or none at all.

Examples

Miranda's uncanny disassociation with reality is exemplified when she looks at a drawing and sees:

A perfect person has no joints. The arms, emerging from short sleeves, are unmarked by the ripple of skin that shows where the limbs bend. A perfect person's portrait is lifelike despite their strange clothes, a black dress that fastens without buttons or a zip, just a straight line across the material to show that it was not pulled on over the head. It was still possible to believe that the person drawn was a real person despite the great almond-shaped eyes set deep into the head, deep and open, unable to blink (Oyeyemi 48).

Format of a direct quotation in-text reference

If you have directly quoted words from a source (in quotation marks or in an indented paragraph), provide the author and specific page number (use the same style as the source unless you are referring to another division of the source - e.g. volumes, chapters, acts, scenes - in which case use Arabic numerals). 

Include a complete reference in the reference list.

The citation will look like this: (Smith 161) or (Brown 54) or (Brown 54; Smith 161)

Refer to the MLA Handbook for more detailed information on citing location information sections 6.16-6.29, pp. 242-250. 

Indirect quotations

What is an indirect citation?

An indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. MLA Handbook 9th edition advises using the material from original sources wherever possible. This may mean that you will have to use the citation from the secondary source to find the original source.

To reference an indirect quotation:

  • Include both the original author and the author of the work where the quote/idea was found in the in-text reference with the abbreviation qtd. in
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the author of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.
  • You may use a note to clarify the relationship between the original and second-hand sources.

One author

Reference Example
In-text

(Leonard qtd. in Clark)

OR

Leonard offers this advice about the use of exclamation points "..." (qtd. in Clark 94).

Reference list

Clark, Roy Peter. The Glamour of Grammar. Little, Brown and Company, 2010.

Endnote reference type The reference type you choose will be dependent on the source you indirectly quoted from.

Reference list

Creating a reference list

  • The recommended heading of the reference list is: Works Cited
  • Your reference list should appear at the end of your document with the entries listed alphabetically by author. 
  • Author's names should be listed as they appear on the title page of the book. Either surname (family name) with full forenames or surname with initials. Example:

Mitchell, William John Thomas

or

Mitchell, W. J. Thomas

  • The name of the first author will be inverted to list the surname first. If there are additional authors, their names are not inverted. Example:

Bomarito, Jessica and Jeffrey W. Hunter

  • For names in languages that order the surname first (e.g. Chinese, Japanese, Korean). How you reference will depend on a number of factors (MLA Handbook section 5.10, pp. 113-114), but generally if the name appears surname first on the title page, do not reverse the name in the works-cited list and no comma is required. Example:

Kimura YĆ«suke. Sacred Cesium Ground and Isa's Deluge: Two Novellas of Japan's 3/11 Disaster, Translated by Doug Slaymaker, Columbia UP, 2019. https://doi-org.10.7312/kimu18942

  • For multiple works by the same author, include the author's name in the first entry only. Then in subsequent references, in place of the author's name, type three hyphens or three em dashes.
  • Each reference should be formatted with a hanging indent (indent the second and following lines).
  • Use title style capitalisation. The first word of the title and subtitle and all other significant words are capitalised. For further information on capitalisation see MLA Handbook sections 2.90-2.98, pp. 54-58.
  • Italicise titles of independently published works, such as books, journals (i.e. the title of the whole journal), newspapers, web sites, databases, films. 
  • Enclose in quotation marks the titles of works that form part of a larger work, such as journal articles, essays, individual stories or poems, chapters of books, pages in web sites. Quotation marks are also used for titles of unpublished works, such as lectures, conference papers, dissertations and manuscripts.
  • Common terms like editor, edited by, translator, and review of should not be abbreviated.
  • For books, the city of publication is not given. Refer to the MLA Handbook section 5.67, pp. 51-52 for exceptions to this element.
  • It is recommended to cite the DOI (if available) or URL for online publications. Refer to the MLA Handbook sections 5.93-5.98, pp. 194-196. Check with your lecturer/tutor about whether they require the inclusion of the DOI or URL.

Book

One author

Reference Example
In-text

(Spacks 5)

OR

Spacks states that … (5)
Reference list

Spacks, Patricia Meyer. Privacy: Concealing the Eighteenth Century Self. U of Chicago P, 2003.

Endnote reference type Book

Two authors

Reference Example
In-text

(Moore and Belsey 45)

OR

Moore and Belsey argue that … (45)
Reference list

Moore, Jane, and Catherine Belsey. The Feminist Reader: Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism. Macmillan, 1989.

Endnote reference type Book

More than two authors

Reference Example
Note

If there are more than two authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names.

In-text

(Boyd et al. 24)

OR

According to Boyd et al. … (24)
Reference list

Boyd, Brian, et al. Evolution, Literature, and Film: A Reader. Columbia UP, 2010.

Endnote reference type Book

No author

Reference Example
Note

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of the author name in the in-text citation. For more about shortened titles refer to the MLA Handbook section 6.10, pp. 237-38.

In-text

(New York Public Library 6)

Reference list

New York Public Library American History Desk Reference. Macmillan, 1997.

Endnote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author

Reference Example
Note

Include the shortened title in the in-text citation so that your reader knows which work you are referring to. In your list of works cited, list alphabetically by title.

In-text

(Palmer, Dickens 45)

(Palmer, Films 67)

Palmer notes that... (Dickens 45).

However, Palmer disputes this... (Films 67).

Reference list

Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin's, 1997.

———. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

Endnote reference type Book

Corporate organisation or institution as author

Reference Example
Note

Otherwise known as a 'corporate author'. In text citations should be shortened to the shortest noun phrase. See In-text references for more detail.

If the organisation is the same as the publisher, do not add an author name. Only list the publisher. When citing, either write the title in the text itself or have an abbreviated form in parenthesis before the page number.

In-text

(United Nations 180)

According to the United Nations… (180)

OR

(MLA 56)

MLA Handbook notes that... (56)

Reference list

United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

MLA Handbook. 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Endnote reference type Book

Republished book

Reference Example
Note

To cite a republished book (e.g. a paperback version of a hardcover that isn't a new edition) in the reference list you may choose to give information on the original publication data before the publication information of the book you are citing.

In-text

As Butler states... (58)

OR

(Garcia Marquez 102)
Reference list

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. Routledge, 1999.

OR

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. 1988. Translated by Edith Grossman, Penguin, 1989.

Endnote reference type Book

Edition of a book

Reference Example
In-text

(Duncan et al. 89-90)

OR

This is corroborated by Duncan et al. (89-90) ...
Reference list

Duncan, Randy, et al. The Power of Comics: History, Form and Culture. 2nd ed., Cambridge UP, 2007.

Endnote reference type Book

Edited book

Reference Example
In-text

(Jackson 123-4)

OR

According to Jackson... (123-4)
Reference list

Jackson, Russell, editor. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film. 2nd ed., Cambridge UP, 2007.

Endnote reference type Book

Single volume in a multivolume work

Reference Example
Note

If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. 

In-text

(Rawling 96)

OR

According to Rawling... (96)

Reference list

Rawling, Barry H. J. "Yorkshire English." The British Isles. Edited by Tometro Hopkins and John McKenny, vol. 1 of World Englishes, Bloomsbury Academic, 2017.

Endnote reference type Book

Two or more volumes in a multivolume work

Reference Example
Note

If you cite from different volumes of a mulitvolume work, in your in-text citation include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s).

In-text

(Sadie 3: 45)

OR

According to Sadie (3: 45)

Reference list

Sadie, Stanley, editor. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed., Grove, 2001. 29 vols.

Endnote reference type Book

eBook/Electronic book (database)

Reference Example
Note

You may provide page number(s) for an online publication in-text if you know it appears consistently for other users. Otherwise, refer to the MLA Handbook section 6.20, p. 244 for more guidance on using stable numbered sections (e.g. chapters or sections) and eBooks.

In-text

(Huang and Rivlin 234)

OR

According to Huang and Rivlin (234)

Reference list

Huang, Alexa, and Elizabeth Rivlin. Shakespeare and the Ethics of Appropriation. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. EBL, uql.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1839669.

Endnote reference type

Electronic Book

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to italicise the database/website/platform the eBook version was accessed from and add URL if DOI not available (optional element).

Translation

Reference Example
Note

The way you cite a translated text will depend on what you wish to focus on - the work itself or the translation.

In-text

(Dostoevsky 200-01)

Dostoevsky writes... (200-01)

OR

(Coulson 200-01)

Coulson's translation...(200-01)

Reference list

Dostoevsky, Feodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Jessie Coulson, edited by George Gibian, Norton, 1964.

OR

Coulson, Jessie, translator. Crime and Punishment. By Feodor Dostoevsky, edited by George Gibian, Norton, 1964.

Endnote reference type

Book

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to add the editor information and capitalise the T in "translated".

ChatGPT and other generative AI tools

Using ChatGPT or other generative AI in your assignments

Confirm with your course coordinator or check your course profile before using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in your assessment. Some assessment pieces do not permit the use of AI tools, while others may allow AI with some limitations.

Any permitted use of AI for assessment must be acknowledged appropriately. Your course coordinator will provide guidance on how to reference the use of AI tools. Some possible examples include:  

  • citing or referencing in the text or list of references
  • inclusion in your methodology
  • an appendix including a full transcript of any prompts and AI-generated responses.

Note: Information about using and referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools in assignments and publications will continue to be updated. Check this page regularly to keep up with any changes (last updated 17 April 2023).

Risks with using information from ChatGPT

AI models sometimes produce incorrect, biased or outdated information. Verify the accuracy of AI-generated content using reliable sources before including it in your work.

Additionally, there may be legal or ethical issues to consider when using AI. Works created by non-humans are not eligible for copyright protection under Australian law. If you intend to publish work incorporating AI-generated content, check the publisher guidelines about what is allowed.

When interacting with AI models, you should be cautious about supplying sensitive information, including personal, confidential or propriety information or data.

Find out more about using AI tools in your studies.

Citing ChatGPT and other generative AI

Where an assignment requires ChatGPT to be cited, you must reference all the content from Generative AI tools that you include. Failure to reference externally sourced, non-original work can result in Academic misconduct.

References should provide clear and accurate information for each source and should identify where they have been used in your work.

Citing generative AI content for specific referencing styles

For many referencing styles, there are no specific guidelines for citing ChatGPT or other generative AI.

Content from generative AI is a nonrecoverable source as it can't be retrieved or linked.

We recommend that you base the reference for generative AI content on the reference style for personal communication or correspondence, unless the referencing style has specific guidelines.

Check the referencing style used in your course for how to cite generative AI or follow the format of the following examples for different styles.

APA 7th

Based on APA Style guidance.

In-text

Author of generative AI model, Year of version used

Example:

(OpenAI, 2022)

OpenAI (2022)

Reference list

Author of AI model used. (Year of AI model used). Name of AI model used (Version of AI model used) [Type or description of AI model used]. Web address of AI model used

Example:

OpenAI. (2022). ChatGPT (Dec 20 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/

The full transcript of a response can be included in an appendix or other supplementary materials.

Visit How to cite ChatGPT for more information.

AGLC

Interim advice and guidance

Essentially use rule 7.12 that covers written correspondence. This is included in the bibliography (rule 1.13). Include the name of the creator and recipient first.

OpenAI, ChatGPT to Fred Jones, Output, 24 February 2023.

Note:

Number Output from [program], [creator] to [recipient], [full date].

1Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. 

Text explaining the prompt that was used can be included in the footnote. The full detail can also be included in an appendix.

Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. The output was generated in response to the prompt, ‘What is the history of the Law School at The University of Queensland’: see below Appendix C.

Chicago 17th

In-text citation or note

Number.Originator of the communication, medium, Day Month, Year.

1 OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, response to question from author, 7 February, 2023.

MLA

Guidance based on How do I cite generative AI in MLA style? from the official style website.

In-text citation

(Short form Title of source) 

(“Describe the symbolism”) 

Work cited

“Title of source” prompt. Name of AI Tool, version, Company, Date content was generated, General web address of tool. 

“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat. 

Vancouver

The text of your document must include:

  • Type of communication
  • Communicator
  • Date in this format (Day Month Year)

In an online chat with OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model (7 February 2023) ...

Acknowledge your use of ChatGPT or other generative AI

If you use ChatGPT or other generative AI to help you generate ideas or plan your process, you should still acknowledge how you used the tool, even if you don’t include any AI generated content in the assignment.

Provide a description of the AI tool used, what you did and the date accessed.

Save a copy of the transcript of your questions and responses from the generative AI tool. You can:

Citing generative AI for publication

Different publishers are taking different approaches to whether generative AI is allowed.

If you are writing for publication, you should check the publisher's information for authors.

Work in an edited book, anthology or collection

Chapter in an edited book

Reference Example
In-text

(Newman 36)

OR

Newman writes that... (36)

Reference list

Newman, Beth. "Wuthering Heights in its Context(s)." Approaches to Teaching Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, edited by Sue Lonoff and Terri A Hasseler. Modern Language Association of America, 2006, pp. 36-43.

Endnote reference type Book section

Chapter in an edited eBook/electronic book (database)

Reference Example
In-text

(Eldred 126)

OR

According to Eldred... (126)

Reference list

Eldred, Laura. "Martin McDonagh and the Contemporary Gothic." Martin McDonagh: A Casebook, edited by Richard Rankin Russell, Taylor & Francis, 2007, pp. 111-30. EBL, uql.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=328231.

Endnote reference type

Electronic book section

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to italicise the database/website/platform the eBook version was accessed from.

Poem or story in a collection

Reference Example
Note

If you are citing a commonly studied prose, do not include the page number in the citation. Instead, use the line numbering and other divisions (act, scene, book, etc.) of the text. Arabic numerals are preferred. For more information refer to MLA Handbook section 6.22, pp.245-246.

In-text

(Carter 159-60)

OR

(Burns line 11)

Reference list

Carter, Angela. "The Tiger's Bride." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories, Penguin, 1995, pp. 154-69.

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.

Endnote reference type Book section

Journal article

Journal article - print

Reference Example
In-text

(Abellie and Borsley 1140)

OR

Abellie and Borsley found that... (1140)

Reference list

Abellie, Anne, and Robert D. Borsley. "Comparative Correlatives and Parameters." Lingua, vol. 118, no. 8, 2008, pp. 1139-57.

Endnote reference type Journal article

Journal article - online with DOI

Reference Example
Note Even if your resource does not provide the DOI with the format http:// or https:// in your reference, precede with the following: https://doi.org/.
In-text

(Baguley 823)

OR

Baguley's view is that... (823)

Reference list

Baguley, David. "Event and Structure: The Plot of Zola's L'Assommoir." PMLA, vol. 90, no. 5, 1975, pp. 823-33. JSTOR, https://doi-org/10.2307/461468.

Endnote reference type

Journal article

Electronic article

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to italicise the database/website/platform the article was accessed from.

Journal article - online with URL

Reference Example
Note To find out more about dealing with long URLs see MLA Handbook section 5.95, pp. 195-196 or consult the MLA Style Centre's page on URLs: Some Practical Advice.
In-text

(Riphagen 68)

Reference list

Riphagen, Marianne. "Contested Categories: Brook Andrew, Christian Thompson and the Framing of Contemporary Australian Art." Australian Humanities Review, no. 55, 2008, Nov. 2013, pp. 67-91, australianhumanitiesreview.org/2013/11/01/contested-categories-brook-andrew-christian-thompson-and-the-framing-of-contemporary-australian-art/.

Endnote reference type

Journal article

Electronic article

Website

Entire website

Reference Example
In-text

(Eaves et al.)

OR

According to Eaves et al. ...

Reference list

Eaves, Morris, et al., editors.The William Blake Archive. Library of Congress, 1996-2013, www.blakearchive.org/blake/.

Endnote reference type

Web Page

Use field Last Updated Date rather than Year. Some punctuation will need to be manually added in the plain text version of the document.

A page on a website

Reference Example
In-text

(Committee on Scholarly Editions)

OR

This is outlined by the Committee on Scholarly Editions...

Reference list

Committee on Scholarly Editions. "Guidelines for Editors of Scholarly Editions." Modern Language Association, MLA, 29 Jun. 2011, www.mla.org/Resources/Research/Surveys-Reports-and-Other-Documents/Publishing-and-Scholarship/Reports-from-the-MLA-Committee-on-Scholarly-Editions/Guidelines-for-Editors-of-Scholarly-Editions.

Endnote reference type

Web Page

Use field Last Updated Date rather than Year. Some punctuation will need to be manually added in the plain text version of the document.

An image on a website

Reference Example
Note

If the work was posted via a username use that username as the author.

In-text

(altamarea)

Reference list

altamarea. "Kookaburra." Flickr, 2 May 2006, flic.kr/p/dheCp.

Endnote reference type

Web Page

Use field Last Updated Date rather than Year. Some punctuation will need to be manually added in the plain text version of the document.

Other internet source

Email

Reference Example
In-text

(Kunka)

OR

In an email dated 15 November 2002, Kunka said that...

Reference list

Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Email to John R. Smith, 15 Nov. 2000.

Endnote reference type

Generic

Enter the recipient name in the Secondary Author field. You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the "edited by" to "Email to".

Blog

Reference Example
In-text

(10 things)

OR

According to "10 things you never knew you could find in a library (#fabulousfinds)" ...

Reference list

"10 things you never knew you could find in a library (#fabulousfinds)." UQ Library, 23 May 2016, web.library.uq.edu.au/blog/2016/05/10-things-you-never-knew-you-could-find-libraryfabulousfinds.

Endnote reference type

Blog

Add full date posted in the Year field.

Tweet

Reference Example
In-text

(@leighsales)

OR

@leighsales has made this point about Mathieson.

Reference list

Sales, Leigh [@leighsales]. “Clive Mathieson is a big loss to journalism - I hope he returns. He's highly regarded by colleagues and competitors.” Twitter, 31 Jan. 2016, twitter.com/leighsales/status/694041062990413824.

Endnote reference type

Social Media

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to add the URL.

YouTube

Reference Example
In-text

(ABC News)

OR

The ABC News' clip shows Turnbull's recollection...

Reference list

"Turnbull Remembers Robert Hughes." YouTube, uploaded by ABC News, 7 Aug. 2012, youtu.be/88L3Rxi0dWg.

Endnote reference type

Social Media

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to add the "uploaded by" and URL.

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Dictionary or encyclopaedia - print

Reference Example
Note

To cite a specific definition in a dictionary entry, give the relevant designation (e.g. number, letter).

In-text

Milton's description of the moon at "her highest noon" signifies the "place of the moon at midnight" ("Noon" def. 4b).

Reference list

"Noon." The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., vol. 10, Clarendon Press, 1989, p. 509.

Endnote reference type

Book section

Encyclopedia

Dictionary

Dictionary or encyclopaedia - online

Reference Example
In-text

A Dutch-Born Abstract Expressionist painter, de Kooning was particularly known as a leading exponent of Action painting ("de Kooning").

Reference list

"de Kooning, Willem." World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2004, Oxford Reference, http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199546091.001.0001/acref-9780199546091-e-3194?rskey=mwloWH&result=1.

Endnote reference type

Book section

Encyclopedia

Dictionary

Dictionary or encyclopaedia with author

Reference Example
Note

When citing specialised reference books, especially those that have appeared in only one edition, include full publication information.

In-text

(Byrne 367)

OR

According to Byrne... (367)

Reference list

Byrne, Sandie. "Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights." British Writers: Classics, edited by Jay Parini, vol. 1, Scribner's, 2003, pp. 367-86.

Endnote reference type

Book

Encyclopedia

Dictionary

Conference paper/proceeding

Conference paper

Reference Example
In-text

(Mann 174)

OR

According to Mann... (174)

Reference list

Mann, Jill. "Chaucer and the 'Woman Question.'" This Nobel Craft: Proceedings of the Tenth Research Symposium of the Dutch and Belgian University Teachers of Old and Middle English and Historical Linguistics, Utrecht, 19-20 January 1989, edited by Erik Kooper, Rodopi, 1991, pp. 173-88.

Endnote reference type Conference proceedings

Conference proceeding - print

Reference Example
In-text

(Freed 11)

OR

It was noted by Freed... (11)

Reference list

Freed, Barbara F., editor. Foreign Language Acquisition Research and the Classroom: Proceeding of the Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Conference, Oct. 1989, U of Pennsylvania, Heath, 1991.

Endnote reference type Edited Book

Conference proceeding - online

Reference Example
Note

If the date and location are not included in the title of the conference, add this information after the title and before the publication details.

In-text

(Redefining the Musical Landscape 45)

OR

This was discussed at the conference Redefining the Musical Landscape (45)

Reference list

Redefining the Musical Landscape: Inspired Learning and Innovation in Music Education - XIX National Conference Proceedings. 29 Sept.-1 Oct. 2013, Canberra, Australian Society for Music Education, 2013. Informit, https://doi.org/10.3316/informit.9780980379235.

Endnote reference type

Conference Proceedings

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to swap the date of the conference with the Publisher of the proceedings.

Newspaper or magazine article

Newspaper article - print

Reference Example
Note

Include the city where the newspaper is published in square brackets if it is not obvious from the title of the publication.

In-text

(Liston 17)

OR

Liston reports... (17)

Reference list

Krugman, Andrew. "Fear of Eating." New York Times, Late ed., 21 May 2007, p. A1.

Litson, Jo. "Pulse of the Times." The Australian, 7 May 2004, p. 17.

Taylor, Paul. "Keyboard Greif: Coping with Computer Caused Injuries." Globe and Mail [Toronto], 27 Dec. 1993, pp. A1+.

Endnote reference type

Newspaper Article

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to abbreviate 'edition' to 'ed.'.

Add Day Month to the Issue Date field.

Magazine article - print

Reference Example
In-text

(Buchman)

OR

According to Buchman... (145)

Reference list

Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, Mar. 2006, pp.143-48.

Endnote reference type

Magazine Article

Add Day Month or Month into the Issue number field. You will need to abbreviate the month as appropriate and edit the plain text version of the document to remove the 'no.' and the comma between the month and the year.

Newspaper/magazine article - online

Reference Example
In-text

(Taylor)

OR

Taylor examines the influences...

Reference list

Taylor, Andrew. "Ben Quilty and Fellow Artists Bring a Soldier's Story of War and It's Aftermath to the Stage." The Age, 31 Jul. 2016, www.theage.com.au/entertainment/opera/ben-quilty-and-fellow-artists-bring-a-soldiers-story-of-war-and-its-aftermath-to-the-stage-20160727-gqet71.html.

Endnote reference type

Magazine Article

Newspaper article

See EndNote notes in Newspaper article - print or Magazine article - print.

Newspaper/magazine article - from online database

Reference Example
In-text

(Gilsdorf)

OR

Gilsdorf states...

Reference list

Gilsdorf, Ethan. "Monster Mash: 'Pride and Prejudice and Zombies' is the Latest Attempt in Melding Film Genres." The Boston Globe, 31 Jan. 2016, Factiva, global-factivacom/redir/default.aspx?P=sa&an=BSTNGB0020160131ec1v001px&cat=a&ep=ASE.

Endnote reference type

Magazine Article

Newspaper article

See EndNote notes in Newspaper article - print or Magazine article - print.

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to italicise the database/website/platform the newspaper version was accessed from.

Newspaper/magazine article - no author

Reference Example
In-text

("Where Angels" 89)

OR

In the Economist article "Where Angels No Longer Fear to Tread"...

Reference list

"Where Angels Fear to Tread." Economist, 22 Mar. 2008, p. 89.

Endnote reference type

Magazine Article

Newspaper article

See EndNote notes in Newspaper article - print or Magazine article - print.

Opinion/Editorial

Reference Example
In-text

(Mulligan)

OR

Mulligan explores the idea of making friends in adulthood...

Reference list

Mulligan, Emily. "There's No Easy Way to Make New Friends as an Adult: And Sometimes Our Friendships Can Feel Like a Chore" The Guardian, 18 Jan. 2022, www.https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2022/jan/18/theres-no-easy-way-to-make-new-friends-as-an-adult-and-sometimes-our-friendships-can-feel-like-a-chore. Op-ed.

Endnote reference type

Magazine Article

Newspaper article

See EndNote notes in Newspaper article - print or Magazine article - print.

Government publication

Government publication - print

Reference Example
Note

If an organisation is both the author and the publisher, you may skip the author element and list the organisation in the publisher element only. However, if the author is a division or committee of the organisation, list the division or committee in the author element and organisation as the publisher. Refer to MLA Handbook section 5.19, p. 119. 

For reference entries where the author element is skipped, shorten the title in in-text citations for entries beginning with a title. There must be enough information for a reader to find the entry in the works cited list. For more information on citing entries that begin with the title refer to the MLA Handbook section 6.10, pp. 237-38.

In-text

(Convention 2)

OR

The United Nations General Assembly addresses this in its Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which states that... (2)

OR

The Department of Communication and the Arts reports on Angela's story... (1)

Reference list

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. United Nations General Assembly, 1979.

Department of Communication and the Arts. My Art Goals: NDIS and the Arts. Australian Government, 5 Dec. 2019, arts.gov.au/publications/my-art-goals-ndis-and-arts.

Endnote reference type

Generic

Government document

Report

Entrer the title of the report into the "Secondary Title" field to ensure that it will be italicised.

Government publication - online

Reference Example
In-text

(Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet iiv)

Reference list

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. Review of Australian Government Investment in the Indigenous Broadcasting and Media Sector. Australian Government, 2010, firstnationsmedia.org.au/sites/default/files/files/Stevens-Review-2010-review-broadcasting-investment.pdf.

Endnote reference type

Generic

Government document

Report

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the full stop after the date into a comma.

Thesis

Thesis - print

Reference Example
In-text

(Dow 28)

OR

As Dow explores... (28)

Reference list

Dow, Thomas Patrick. Younger Sons, Bastards, and Devils: Revising Patriarchy through Models of Balanced Authority in Charlotte Brontë, Emily Brontë, and William Thackeray. 2006. Loyola U, PhD dissertation.

Endnote reference type

Book

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to manually add information about institution granting the degree and the description of the work.

Thesis - online

Reference Example
In-text

(Dennis 78)

OR

Dennis disagrees with this reading... (78)

Reference list

Dennis, Abigail Sophie. Feasts, Friends and Feminists: The Performance of Aberrant Female Appetite in Neo-Victorian Fiction. 2008. U of Queensland, MPhil thesis. UQ eSpace, espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ151848.

Endnote reference type

Electronic Book

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to manually add information about institution granting the degree and the description of the work.

Film or Television

About referencing film and television

In the MLA Handbook there are a number of optional elements that can be included in your citation that, though while not core elements of the citation, make it easier for a reader to follow up on your citation. See the full MLA Handbook for further details. You may also wish to refer to the MLA Style Centre's Ask the MLA section, which includes a number of additional details and/or clarification about citing film and television. Questions include:

Film

Reference Example
Note

If your discussion of the work focuses on the contribution of a particular person (e.g. director or actor), you would put them in the place of the author, followed by a descriptive label. If you are referencing the work without focusing on a particular person's contribution, begin with the title and include information about other people's contribution in the position of other contributors.

In-text

Capra's classic starred James Stewart as George Bailey (It's a Wonderful Life)

OR

It's a Wonderful Life has a number of animals roaming the set... (Capra)

Reference list

It's a Wonderful Life. Directed by Frank Capra, performance by James Stewart et. al., RKO, 1946.

OR

Capra, Frank, director. It's a Wonderful Life. RKO,1946.

Endnote reference type

Book

If you are focusing on a contributor, their name should be entered into the author field as you would a corporate author with a comma in the name with the description included in the field. For the above example, the name would go into the author field as Capra,, Frank, director.

DVD or Video

Reference Example
Note

If focusing on the contribution of a particular person begin the entry with their name, followed by a description. For more information about author descriptions refer to the MLA Handbook sections 5.40 & 5.44, pp. 147-48 & 151-52.

In-text

In Ed Wood, Burton takes a novel approach to the biopic genre...

Reference list

Burton, Tim, director. Ed Wood. Touchstone, 1994.

Endnote reference type

Book

Generic

If you are focusing on a contributor, their name should be entered into the author field as you would a corporate author with a comma in the name with the description included in the field. For the above example, the name would go into the author field as Burton,, Tim, director.

Film - accessed online

Reference Example
Note

Treat films sourced online as you would an online journal article or eBook, where you will need to indicate the container it is held in. For more information, refer to the MLA Handbook section 5.35, p. 138.

Access dates are optional elements that may be useful if the source is accessed on a platform where the material may be altered or removed.

In-text

Stoker was director Park Chan-wook's English language debut...

Reference list

Stoker. Directed by Park Chan-wook. Performed by Mia Wasikowska et al., Fox Searchlight, 2013. Netflix, www.netflix.com/WiMovie/70254927. Accessed 16 Nov. 2015.

Endnote reference type

Film or Broadcast

Generic

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the order so that the title appears first, as the default is for director to appear first in the bibliography. You will also need to manually edit the style to add the word 'Accessed' before the access date.

Television program - Episode on a DVD

Reference Example
Note

Information you include about other contributors will be on a case-by-case basis. Include information on other contributors (e.g. writer, director, producer, actor/s) if they are important to your research or to the identification of the work. For more information, refer to MLA Handbook sections 5.41 p. 148.

In-text

...("Amuse-Bouche")

OR

"Amuse-Bouche", the second episode of Hannibal, explores the desire to find human connection...

Reference list

"Amuse-Bouche." Hannibal, written by Jim Danger Gray, directed by Michael Rymer, season 1, episode 2, Twentieth Century Fox, 2013, disc 1.

Endnote reference type

Television Episode

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to include information such as additional contributors and disc number.

Television program/Radio program - Broadcast

Reference Example
Note

Information you include about other contributors will be on a case-by-case basis. Include information on other contributors (e.g. writer, director, producer, actor/s) if they are important to your research or to the identification of the work. For more information, refer to MLA Handbook sections 5.41 p. 148.

In-text

...("Welcome to Happyland")

OR

In this Life Matters segment, Joel Carnegie discusses the work of an artist engaged in a street art project in the slums of Manila.

Reference list

"Welcome to Happyland." Life Matters, narrated by Joel Carnegie, Radio National, ABC, 13 Nov. 2015.

Endnote reference type

Television Episode

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to include information such as additional contributors.

Television program - Episode streamed online

Reference Example
Note

Treat films sourced online as you would an online journal article or eBook, where you will need to indicate the container it is held in. For more information, refer to the MLA Handbook section 5.35, p. 138.

Access dates are optional elements that may be useful if the source is accessed on a platform where the material may be altered or removed.

In-text

...("Jewel's Book")

OR

In "Jewel's Boot is made for walking"...

Reference list

"Jewel's Boot is Made for Walking." Deadwood, directed by Mark Tinker, season 1, episode 11, HBO, 2004. Informit EduTV, edutv.informit.com.au/watch-screen.php?videoID=957976. Accessed 16 Nov. 2015.

Endnote reference type

Television episode

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the order so that the title appears first, as the default is for director to appear first in the bibliography. You will also need to manually edit the style to add the word 'Accessed' before the access date.

Video - uploaded to a streaming service

Reference Example
In-text

UQ Library's "Discovery the Library" video is a quick introduction...

Reference list

"Discover the Library." YouTube, uploaded by UQ Library, 11 Jan. 2021, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJHxjOD2q4k&t=30s

Endnote reference type

Film or Broadcast

Generic

Video - viewed in an app

Reference Example
In-text

With the character introductions in the bar scene ("Terror of Tal'Dorei" 00:02:03-06:24) ...

Reference list

"The Terror of Tal'Dorei - Part 1." Directed by Young Heller.  The Legend of Vox Machina, season 1, episode 1, Amazon Original, 28 Jan. 2022. Amazon Prime Video app.

Endnote reference type

Film or Broadcast

Generic

Artwork

Work in an exhibit - viewed firsthand

Reference Example
In-text

(Degas)

OR

Degas' Trois danseuse a la classe de danse is an example of...

Reference list

Degas, Edgar. Trois danseuses a la classe de danse [Three dancers at a dance class]. 1959. Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane.

Endnote reference type

Artwork

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the title from in quotation marks to italicised and move the date to the correct position in the reference.

Work in a private collection - viewed firsthand

Reference Example
Note

Give the name of the collection (Collection of...) or, Private collection if the collector is unknown.

In-text

(Bacon)

OR

In Isabel de Borbón, Velázquez uses...

Reference list

Bacon, Francis.Triptych, May-June 1973. 1973. Collection of Esther Grether.

Velázquez, Diego. Isabel de Borbón. 1631-1632. Private collection.

Endnote reference type

Artwork

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to change the title from in quotation marks to italicised and move the date to the correct position in the reference. Enter the collection details into the Publisher field.

Reproduction of an artwork - print

Reference Example
Note

For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page numbers.

In-text

(Goya)

OR

Goya takes a different approach in his work "The Family of Charles IV"...

Reference list

Goya, Francisco. "The Family of Charles IV". 1800. Museo del Prado, Madrid. Gardener's Art Through the Ages, by Helen Gardner et al., 10th ed., Harcourt Brace, 1996, p.939

Endnote reference type

Book section

Book section is perhaps the closest reference output style that has minimal manual editing required. You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to add the painting's original creation year and place where the work is held.

Reproduction of an artwork - online

Reference Example
Note

For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.g. images of artwork in a book), cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including URL or DOI.

Access dates are optional elements that may be useful if the source is accessed on a platform where the material may be altered or removed.

In-text

(Bernini)

OR

Bernini's "David" provides and interesting contrast...

Reference list

Bernini, Gianlorenzo. "David". 1623-4. Galleria Borghese, Rome. The Artchive, www.artchive.com. Accessed 18 Nov. 2015.

Endnote reference type

Book section

Book section is perhaps the closest reference output style that has minimal manual editing required. You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to add the painting's original creation year, place where the work is held, add 'Accessed' before the access date.

Theatre

Play/script - print

Reference Example
In-text

(Miller 11)

OR

In Act One of Death of a Salesman, Miller...(11)

Reference list

Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015.

Endnote reference type Book

Play/script - online

Reference Example
Note

URLs are an optional element to include for eBooks. While encouraged as a URL may provide readers with more information on where the reference was originally located and accessed, follow your instructors directions on whether or not to include.

In-text

(Delany, act 1)

OR

Act 2 of Shaw's play opens inside the cottage...

Reference list

Delaney, Shelagh. A Taste of Honey. Revised ed,. Methuen, 2008. Drama Online.

Shaw, George Bernard. Mrs Warren's Profession. 1984. Project Gutenburg, 2002. Project Gutenburg, www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1097.

Endnote reference type

Electronic Book

You will need to manually edit the output for this style in the plain text version of the document to italicise the database/website/platform the eBook version was accessed from and add URL if DOI not available (optional element).

Unpublished script

Reference Example
In-text

(Nowra)

OR

Nowra's playscript examines...

Reference list

Nowra, Louis. "The Watchtower." 1990. Theatrical script.

Endnote reference type Generic

Performance

Reference Example
Note

If your discussion of the work focuses on the contribution of a particular person (e.g. director or actor), you would put them in the place of the author, followed by a descriptive label. If you are referencing the work without focusing on a particular person's contribution, begin with the title and include information about other people's contribution in the position of other contributors.

In-text

Lefevre's interpretation of Shaw's work...

OR

The Queensland Theatre Company production of Oedipus Doesn't Live Here Anymore...

Reference list

Lefevre, Robin, director. Heartbreak House. By George Bernard Shaw, performances by Philip Bosco and Swoosie Kurtz, Roundabout Theatre Company, 1 Oct. 2016, American Airlines Theatre, New York.

OR

Oedipus Doesn't Live Here Anymore. By Daniel Evans, directed by Jason Klarwein, designed by Jessica Ross, performed by Ellen Bailey, Emily Burton, Joe Klocek and Toby Martin, Queensland Theatre Company, 11 June 2015, Billie Brown Studio, Brisbane.

Endnote reference type

Generic

If you are focusing on a contributor, their name should be entered into the author field as you would a corporate author with a comma in the name with the description included in the field. For the above example, the name would go into the author field as Lefevre,, Robin, director. Further manually editing of the plain text version of the document may be required.