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ChatGPT and other generative AI tools

How to cite or acknowledge generative AI tools in your assignments and publications.

Using ChatGPT or other generative AI in your assignments

Some assignments do not permit the use of ChatGPT or other generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools.

Confirm with your course lecturer what is permitted for a specific assignment prior to commencing.

Note: It is likely that the Information about using and referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools in assignments and publications will continue to be updated. We recommend checking this page regularly to keep up with any changes.

Citing ChatGPT and other generative AI

Where an assignment requires ChatGPT to be cited, you must reference all the content from Generative AI tools that you include. Failure to reference externally sourced, non-original work can result in Academic misconduct.   

References should provide clear and accurate information for each source and should identify where they have been used in your work.

Citing generative AI content for specific referencing styles

For many referencing styles there are no specific guidelines for citing ChatGPT or other generative AI.

Content from generative AI is a nonrecoverable source as it can't be retrieved or linked.

We recommend that you base the reference for generative AI content on the reference style for personal communication or correspondence.

Check the referencing style used in your course for how to cite personal communication or follow the format of our examples.

APA 7th

In-text citation:

(Communicator, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

(Paraphrase from OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, personal communication, February 7, 2023).


Interim advice and guidance

Essentially use rule 7.12 that covers written correspondence. This is included in the bibliography (rule 1.13). Include the name of the creator and recipient first.

OpenAI, ChatGPT to Fred Jones, Output, 24 February 2023.


Number Output from [program], [creator] to [recipient], [full date].

1Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. 

Text explaining the prompt that was used can be included in the footnote. The full detail can also be included in an appendix.

Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. The output was generated in response to the prompt, ‘What is the history of the Law School at The University of Queensland’: see below Appendix C.

Chicago 17th

In-text citation or note:

Number.Originator of the communication, medium, Day Month, Year.

1 OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, response to question from author, 7 February, 2023.   


In-text citation:



Work cited:

Author. “Name of AI”. Website name, Web address. 

OpenAI. “ChatGPT”. Welcome to ChatGPT, 

UQ Harvard

In-text citation: 

(Communicator, personal communication, Day Month Year) 

(OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, personal communication, 7 February 2023) 


The text of your document must include:

  • Type of communication
  • Communicator
  • Date in this format (Day Month Year)

In an online chat with OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model (7 February 2023) ...

Acknowledge your use of ChatGPT or other generative AI

If you use ChatGPT or other generative AI to help you generate ideas or plan your process, you should still acknowledge how you used the tool, even if you don’t include any AI generated content in the assignment.

Provide a description of the AI tool used, what you did and the date accessed.

Citing generative AI for publication

Different publishers are taking different approaches to whether generative AI is allowed.

If you are writing for publication, you should check the publisher's information for authors.

Risks with using information from ChatGPT

Information obtained from ChatGPT should not be considered a primary source and should be used in conjunction with other sources.

Additionally, since AI models can sometimes produce incorrect or biased information, it's crucial to verify information obtained from ChatGPT with other sources before including it in your work. 

Find out more about using AI tools in your studies.