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UQ Harvard referencing style - print version

This version of the UQ Harvard referencing style guide has been set up to allow you to print or save the entire guide.

About UQ Harvard Style

About Harvard Style

The “Harvard style” is not an actual style, it is not associated with Harvard University - see their statement.  There is no official manual for the "Harvard style" but it has historically been associated with the author-date style. There are many variants which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style.

The "UQ Harvard" guide is based on the 6th edition of the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (Snooks & Co. 2002).

In-text citations

Using in-text citations

  • In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses; e.g. (Jones 2017)
     
  • If the author's name is included within the sentence, only the date (and page reference if appropriate) is included in parentheses and it is best placed directly after the author's name. e.g. Taylor (2015) purports that ...
     
  • A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page or pages. 
     
  • When including a page number, place a comma after the year and use the abbreviations p. (for a single page reference) and pp. (for multiple pages); e.g. (Smith 2016, p. 105) or (Harris 2013, pp. 131-132)   
     
  • Place the in-text citation at the end of a sentence, before the concluding punctuation; e.g. ... 'anxiety about the cultural effects of globalisation' (Smith 2016, p. 105). Or, if the citation refers to only part of a sentence, place it at the end of the clause or phrase to which it relates; e.g. This was not the case prior to 1974 (James 2001), however  ....  
     
  • If there is no date provided for a source, the abbreviation n.d. may be used; e.g. (Jones n.d.) or (Brown n.d., pp. 49-50)
     
  • Separate multiple citations by a semi-colon; e.g. (Brown n.d., pp. 49-50; Smith 2016, p. 105)

Direct quotations

What is a direct quotation?

  • A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work.
  • If the quotation is fewer than 30 words, incorporate it into a paragraph and enclose the quotation in single quotation marks. Use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote (see examples below). 
  • If the quotation comprises 30 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text (set in a smaller type), without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
  • For a direct quotation, provide the author, year, and specific page number(s) for that source. For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number. Include complete bibliographic details in the reference list.
  • Ending a sentence: place the terminating punctuation mark (eg. full stop, question mark, exclamation mark)  before the closing quotation marks but outside when they are part of the carrier statement. see - Short quotation: examples 2 and 3

Examples:

  • Short quotation:
    • Example 1:  Perlman writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy' (2005, p. 41).
    • Example 2:  Perlman (2005, p. 41) writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy.'
    • Example 3:  Did you hear her say 'It's a lovely day'?
       
  • Long quotation:

Francois Weil has charted the ways in which genealogy began as a “private quest for pedigree” amongst status-seeking settlers in colonial America until the late eighteenth century, becoming increasingly egalitarian and more widely practised among the middle class and free African Americans from the antebellum era. (Evans & Clarke 2017, p. 169)

 

Indirect citation or secondary source

What is an indirect citation or secondary source?

An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • Include both the original author and the author of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference.
  • Add "as cited in" before the author in the in-text reference. For example - (cited in Lewis 2019).
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the author of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.

Citing a indirect citation or secondary source

Elements of the reference Follow the format of the reference in which you found the indirect citation.
In-text reference

Miller (cited in Agrios 2005) found …

or

… it was found (Miller cited in Agrios 2005).

Reference list

Agrios GN, 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier, Burlington, MA.

Provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

EndNote reference type

Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing. After you have inserted the citation into your Word document, add “cited in” manually using “Edit & Manage Citations” option on the EndNote ribbon.

Reference list

How to create a reference list/bibliography

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text.

  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.
  • Commas are used to separate each item of the reference/citation. 
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • For electronic sources, use angle brackets (<>) to isolate the web address/URL from the rest of the reference.

bibliography includes all sources consulted for background reading, even if they are not cited in the document. The same method of presentation is used for both a reference list and a bibliography.

Example reference list

References

Albanese, A (Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government) 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Canberra, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/releases/2009>.

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, viewed 06 November 2012, <https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/child-protection/child-protection-australia-2008-09/contents/table-of-contents>.

Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.

Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in WF Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 231-61.

Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.

Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6. 

Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index.asp>.

Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

Book (including author information)

Single author

Elements of the citation

Author of book - family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book - italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.

Note:  - There is no punctuation between the author initials and the year
           - Commas are used to separate the other citation elements and a full stop is
              placed at the end of the
citation

In-text reference Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994, p. 25)

or

Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that …

or

Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that …

Reference list Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.
EndNote reference type Book

Two authors

Elements of the citation Authors of book - family name, initials & family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book - italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994)

or

Cengel and Boles (1994) found …

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list

EndNote reference type Book

Three authors

Elements of the citation Authors of book - family name, initials, family name, initials & family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book - italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons & Green 1989).

or

Reid, Parsons and Green (1989), as previously mentioned, ...

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list 

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list
EndNote reference type Book

Four or more authors

Elements of the citation Authors of book - family name, initials (Place a comma after each authors initials except the second last and last author. Last author is preceded by an &)  Year of publication, Title of book - italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008).

or

Jull et al. (2008) have argued …

  • Show only the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'
Reference list 

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

  • List all of the authors' names in the reference list.
EndNote reference type Book

No author

Elements of the citation Title of book - italicised  Year, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004).

or

In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example …

Reference list  Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author

Elements of the citation Author of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004, 2006).

... geology of Queensland's national parks (Willmott 2004, p. 34; 2006, p.57)

  • Separate the years with a comma. When including page references, use a semi-colon, as in the second example.
Reference list 

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

  • Order chronologically by year in the reference list.
EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Elements of the citation Author of book – family name, initials Year of publication and letter, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a, 1996b)
Reference list 

Dawkins, R 1996a, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking, London.

Dawkins, R 1996b, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.

  • Order alphabetically by title in the reference list and distinguish each reference with a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ... etc) after the year
EndNote reference type Book

Book by an organisation or institution (corporate author)

Elements of the citation Corporate author name Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

… in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987).

  • Where the name of the authoring body is long and is used frequently throughout the document, an abbreviation may be used, but it should then be used for all subsequent citations of that authoring body and a cross reference should be included in the reference list (see below)
Reference list 

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Example cross-reference:

AGPS - see Australian Government Publishing Service

  • The bibliographic detail should be provided alongside the full name of the authoring body.
EndNote reference type

Book 

Add a comma after each corporate author (eg. Queensland Health,) in the Author field

Different editions

Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004)
Reference list 

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

EndNote reference type Book

Edited book

Elements of the citation

Editor(s) of book – family name, initials (eds) Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.

Note: treat multiple editors like you would treat multiple authors

In-text reference

Pike and Sarkar (1986) show that...

… optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986)

… some findings (Sjostrand 1993)

Reference list 

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

  • Use the abbreviations ed. (for a single editor) or eds (for multiple editors)
EndNote reference type Edited Book

Book series

Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Name of series, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference ...the permutation groups Bhattacharjee (1998), …
Reference list  Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.
EndNote reference type Book

eBook

Elements of the citation Author(s) of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication, viewed date - day month year, DOI number or <url>, (name of electronic provider).
In-text reference The number of molecules … (Kamal 2010).
Reference list 

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

  • Include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available
  • Include the URL if accessed via a free website
  • Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in parentheses at the end.
EndNote reference type

Electronic Book

Enter the Digital Object Identifier (if available) in the DOI field.

If the book was accessed via a free website, put the URL in the URL field

Book chapter

Chapter in an edited book

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) – initials and family name (eds), Title of book – italicised, Edition - edn, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

Note: - use ed for one author
           - use eds for 2 or more authors
           - the editor's name should appear with the initials first followed by the last name

In-text reference Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows.
Reference list 

Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in WF Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 231-61.

EndNote reference type Book section

ChatGPT and other generative AI tools

Using ChatGPT or other generative AI in your assignments

Confirm with your course coordinator or check your course profile before using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in your assessment. Some assessment pieces do not permit the use of AI tools, while others may allow AI with some limitations.

Any permitted use of AI for assessment must be acknowledged appropriately. Your course coordinator will provide guidance on how to reference the use of AI tools. Some possible examples include:  

  • citing or referencing in the text or list of references
  • inclusion in your methodology
  • an appendix including a full transcript of any prompts and AI-generated responses.

Note: Information about using and referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools in assignments and publications will continue to be updated. Check this page regularly to keep up with any changes (last updated 17 April 2023).

Risks with using information from ChatGPT

AI models sometimes produce incorrect, biased or outdated information. Verify the accuracy of AI-generated content using reliable sources before including it in your work.

Additionally, there may be legal or ethical issues to consider when using AI. Works created by non-humans are not eligible for copyright protection under Australian law. If you intend to publish work incorporating AI-generated content, check the publisher guidelines about what is allowed.

When interacting with AI models, you should be cautious about supplying sensitive information, including personal, confidential or propriety information or data.

Find out more about using AI tools in your studies.

Citing ChatGPT and other generative AI

Where an assignment requires ChatGPT to be cited, you must reference all the content from Generative AI tools that you include. Failure to reference externally sourced, non-original work can result in Academic misconduct.

References should provide clear and accurate information for each source and should identify where they have been used in your work.

Citing generative AI content for specific referencing styles

For many referencing styles, there are no specific guidelines for citing ChatGPT or other generative AI.

Content from generative AI is a nonrecoverable source as it can't be retrieved or linked.

We recommend that you base the reference for generative AI content on the reference style for personal communication or correspondence, unless the referencing style has specific guidelines.

Check the referencing style used in your course for how to cite generative AI or follow the format of the following examples for different styles.

APA 7th

Based on APA Style guidance.

In-text

Author of generative AI model, Year of version used

Example:

(OpenAI, 2022)

OpenAI (2022)

Reference list

Author of AI model used. (Year of AI model used). Name of AI model used (Version of AI model used) [Type or description of AI model used]. Web address of AI model used

Example:

OpenAI. (2022). ChatGPT (Dec 20 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/

The full transcript of a response can be included in an appendix or other supplementary materials.

Visit How to cite ChatGPT for more information.

AGLC

Interim advice and guidance

Essentially use rule 7.12 that covers written correspondence. This is included in the bibliography (rule 1.13). Include the name of the creator and recipient first.

OpenAI, ChatGPT to Fred Jones, Output, 24 February 2023.

Note:

Number Output from [program], [creator] to [recipient], [full date].

1Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. 

Text explaining the prompt that was used can be included in the footnote. The full detail can also be included in an appendix.

Output from ChatGPT, OpenAI to Fred Jones, 24 February 2023. The output was generated in response to the prompt, ‘What is the history of the Law School at The University of Queensland’: see below Appendix C.

Chicago 17th

In-text citation or note

Number.Originator of the communication, medium, Day Month, Year.

1 OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, response to question from author, 7 February, 2023.

MLA

Guidance based on How do I cite generative AI in MLA style? from the official style website.

In-text citation

(Short form Title of source) 

(“Describe the symbolism”) 

Work cited

“Title of source” prompt. Name of AI Tool, version, Company, Date content was generated, General web address of tool. 

“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat. 

UQ Havard

In-text citation

(Communicator, personal communication, Day Month Year) 

(OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model, personal communication, 7 February 2023) 

Vancouver

The text of your document must include:

  • Type of communication
  • Communicator
  • Date in this format (Day Month Year)

In an online chat with OpenAI's ChatGPT AI language model (7 February 2023) ...

Acknowledge your use of ChatGPT or other generative AI

If you use ChatGPT or other generative AI to help you generate ideas or plan your process, you should still acknowledge how you used the tool, even if you don’t include any AI generated content in the assignment.

Provide a description of the AI tool used, what you did and the date accessed.

Save a copy of the transcript of your questions and responses from the generative AI tool. You can:

Citing generative AI for publication

Different publishers are taking different approaches to whether generative AI is allowed.

If you are writing for publication, you should check the publisher's information for authors.

Conference paper

Published conference paper

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper - family name and initials Year of publication, 'Title of paper - in single quotation marks', Title of published proceedigs which may include place held and date(s) - italicised, Publisher, Place of publication, Page number(s).

In-text reference Bourassa (1999) emphasised …
Reference list Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6.
EndNote reference type Book section

Unpublished conference paper

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper - family name an intials Year of publication, 'Title of paper - in single quotation marks',  paper presented to /abstract presented at - name of conference (italicise), Place conference held, date of conference - days and month written in full.

In-text reference … estimating partner change (Bowden & Fairley 1996)
Reference list

Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

N.B. Use this example for unpublished papers and abstracts presented at conferences, seminars and meetings.

EndNote reference type

Conference proceedings

Journal article

Author information

For guidance on author variations (no author, many authors etc) please consult the section Book (including author information) as the same rules regarding authors will apply.

Print/Online journal article with page numbers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article - family name, initials (no spaces between multiple intials) Year of publication, 'Title of journal article (sentence case) in single quotation marks', Title of journal (capitalised and italicised), vol. - Volume number, no. - Issue number, Page number(s).

Note: Page numbers

  • Don't repeat page numbers eg. 123-129 should be 123-9
  • p. for single page
  • pp. for mutiple pages
In-text reference

Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory …

or

… uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996).

Reference list  Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.
EndNote reference type Journal article

Print/Online journal article, no author

Elements of the citation

'Title of journal article (sentence case) in single quotation marks', Year of publication, Title of journal (capitalised and italicised), vol. - Volume number, no. - Issue number, Page number(s).

Note: Page numbers

  • Don't repeat page number digits eg. 123-129 should be 123-9
  • p. for single page
  • pp. for mutiple pages
In-text reference

(Artificial Intelligence 2019)

Or

In the article Artificial intelligence (2019)...

Reference list

'Artificial intelligence',  2019, Communications of the ACM, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 10-1.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Online journal article without page numbers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article - family name, initials (no spaces between multiple intials) Year of publication, 'Title of journal article (sentence case) in single quotation marks', Title of journal (capitalised and italicised), vol. - Volume number, no. - Issue number, viewed date (Day Month written in full Year), <URL>.

In-text reference … the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005).
Reference list  Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index.asp>.
EndNote reference type Electronic article

Newspaper or magazine article

Newspaper article with author

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article – Family name, Initials (no spaces between mulitple initials) Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks and sentence case’, Title of Newspaper or Magazine (capitalised and italicised), Day Month written in full, Page number(s).

Note: Page numbers

  • Don't repeat page numbers eg. 123-129 should be 123-9
  • p. for single page
  • pp. for mutiple pages
In-text reference (Cook 2002)
Reference list

Cook, D 2002, 'All in the mind', The Age, 28 January, p. 8.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Elements of the citation

If there is no author for the newspaper article provide the following details in the in-text citation of the document only:

(Title of newspaper - capitalised and italicised Day Month written in full Year, p. Page number)

OR

Title of newspaper (capitalised and italicised) (Day Month written in full Year, p. Page number)

In-text reference

(Sydney Morning Herald 16 January 2018, p.16)

or

... in the Sydney Morning Herald (31 January 2018, p.16)

Reference list

There is no need for an entry in the reference list.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

News article online

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article – Family name, Initials (no spaces between mulitple initials) Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks and sentence case’, Title of News Source (capitalised and italicised), Publication date - Day Month written in full, viewed date - Day Month written in full Year, <URL>. 

In-text reference (Taylor 2018)
Reference list

Taylor, D 2018, 'Data breach notification laws will force businesses to say if they've been hacked', ABC News, 2 February, view 5 February 2018, <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-02-02/data-breach-notification-laws-coming-on-february-22/9391504>.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article from fulltext database

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article - Family name, Initials (no spaces between mulitple initials) Year of publication, 'Title of article in sentence case, enclosed in single quotation marks', Title of News Source (capitalised and italicised), Publication date -  Day Month-written in full, p. page number, viewed date - Day Month Year,  Name of Database.

In-text reference (Lampathakis 1997)
Reference list

Lampathakis, P 1997, 'Tantrums seen as suicide warning', The West Australian, 11 August, p. 26, viewed 16 October 2000, Factiva.

EndNote reference type

Newspaper article

Enter “11 August” in the Issue field. Enter “Factiva” in the URL field.

Magazine article - print

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article - Family name, Initials (no space between multiple initials) Year of publication, 'Title of article in sentence case enclosed in single quote marks', Title of Magazine (captialised and italicised), vol.  ,volume number, no. issue number (if available), Date - day and month/ month/ quarter or similar identifer if no volume and/or issue numbers available, p./pp. page numbers.

In-text reference (Walker 2006)
Reference list

Walker, J 2006, 'See how they soar', Business Review Weekly, 10 December, pp. 24-26.

If there is no volume and issue number, replace this information with the date - day and month / month / quarter  or other similar identifier.

EndNote reference type Magazine article

Magazine article - online

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of article - Family name, Initials (no space between multiple initials) Year of publication, 'Title of article in sentence case enclosed in single quote marks', Title of Magazine (captialised and italicised), viewed date - Day Month Year. <URL>.

In-text reference (Zahos 2018)
Reference list

Zahos, E 2018, 'The payday loan alternative that could save Aussies thousands', Money, viewed 13 February 2018. <http://moneymag.com.au/payday-loans-alternative/>.

EndNote reference type

Magazine article

Add month to (Year) in reference list after converting to plain text (final step)

Report from an electronic database

Report from an electronic database - with known author

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of report (person or organisation) Family name, Initials Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Report description and/or number (if available), viewed date - Day Month Year, Name of database.

Note: when referencing a report from a Library database, do not include the URL. Include the name of the database and the date you accessed it.

In-text reference (Johnson 2018)
Reference list Johnson, S 2018, Document management services in Australia, IBISWorld Industry Report OD5517, viewed 5 February 2018, IBISWorld database.
EndNote reference type Report

Report from an electronic database - organisational author

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of report (person or organisation) Family name, Initials Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Report description and/and or number if available, viewed date - Day Month Year, Name of database.

Ensure that you differentiate between the name of the database and the author or publisher of the information.

In this example the organisation/corporate author is the publisher, Euromonitor International, who provided the information through the Passport database. 

In-text reference (Euromonitor 2017)
Reference list Euromonitor 2017, Footwear in Australia, Country report, viewed 2 December 2017, Passport database.
EndNote reference type Report

Thesis

Thesis

Elements of the citation

Author of thesis - family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, 'Title of thesis in single quotation marks', Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.

In-text reference Exelby (1997) described the process …
OR
… processing gold (Exelby 1997)
Reference list 

Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

The title is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks.

EndNote reference type

Thesis

Report

Report with known author(s) - print

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of report (person or organisation) Family name, Initials Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised and sentence case, Report series name and Report number (if available), Publisher/Institution, Place of publication.

In-text reference

… in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999)

Reference list  Mortimer, M & Cox, M 1999, Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River, Environment technical report no. 25, Queensland Department of the Environment, Brisbane.
EndNote reference type Report
Use the institution field for publisher name

Report with corporate author - electronic

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of report (person or organisation) Family name, Initials Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised and sentence case, Report series name and Report number (if available), Publisher/Institution, Place of publication, viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

In-text reference

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010)

Reference list  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2020, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, viewed 6 November 2012, <https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/child-protetion/child-protection-australia-2008-09/contents/table-of-contents>.
EndNote reference type Report
Use the institution field for publisher name

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Encyclopedia and dictionary entry

Elements of the citation Note: if there is an author named in an entry for an encyclopaedia follow the entry style for a newspaper but leave out the day and month details.
In-text reference

If no author is evident or if it is a dictionary being cited, provide the necessary information in the text. For example:

The Macquarie dictionary (1997) defines it as ...

or

(The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language, 1995)

Reference list There is no need for an entry in the reference list if there is no author.

Webpage

Basic webpage/homepage

Elements of the citation

Author(s), editor(s) or compiler of  web site (person or organisation) Year site was created or revised, Title of webpage/homepage, Publisher/creator of webpage (if available), Place of source/publisher (if available) viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

Note:

- for the URL, include the full location details if they are necessary to locate the specific document, otherwise include the URL of the main webpage from which the document can be located. 

- for a document within a web site, consider it in the same way as a published document or book.

In-text reference … the fall of Rome (Beard 2011)
Reference list  Beard, M 2011, The fall of the Roman Republic, BBC, viewed 14 December 2020, <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/fallofromanrepublic_article_01.shtml>.
EndNote reference type Web Page

Document within a web site

Elements of the citation

Author(s), editor(s) or complier of page - (person or organisation) - Family name, Initials Year page created or revised, Title of document - italicised and sentence case, Version number (if applicable), Description of document , Publisher or sponsor of the document, Place of publication (if available), viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

NOTE:

- for the URL, include the full location details if they are necessary to locate the specific document, otherwise include the URL of the main webpage from which the document can be located. 

- for a document within a web site, consider it in the same way as a published document or book.

In-text reference … this agreement (Albanese 2009)
Reference list  Albanese, A (Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government) 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Canberra, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/releases/2009>.
EndNote reference type Web Page

Web page - no author

Elements of the citation Title of web page italicise Year page created or revised, Publisher, sponsor or host of the web page (if available), Place of the publication (if available),  viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.
In-text reference

(More sugar, more problems 2020)

Use title instead of author name.

Reference list 

More sugar, more problems 2020, viewed 14 December 2020, Northwestern Medicine, Chicago, <https://www.nm.org/healthbeat/healthy-tips/nutrition/more-sugar-more-problems>.

EndNote reference type Web Page

Web page with no date of publication

Elements of the citation

Author(s) - person or organisation - Family name, Initials n.d., Title of webpage or document italicised, Publisher, sponsor or host of the webpage (if available), Place of the publication (if available), viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

n.d. = no date/no publication date found

In-text reference … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.)
Reference list Bliss, SE n.d., The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, viewed 10 February 2008, <http://eqi.org/mgtpaper.htm>.
EndNote reference type Web Page

Web page with institutional or organisational author

Elements of the citation

Author(s) - person or organisation - Family name, Initials n.d., Title of webpage or document italicised, Publisher, sponsor or host of the webpage (if available), Place of the publication (if available), viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

In-text reference (Queensland Health 2017)
Reference list Queensland Health 2017, Sun safety and physical activity, Queensland Government, Brisbane, viewed 11 December 2017, <http://conditions.health.qld.gov.au/HealthCondition/condition/20/199/134/sun-safety-and-physical-activity>.
EndNote reference type Web Page

Other Internet sources

Podcasts

Elements of the citation Author(s) - Family name, Initials Year of broadcast, 'Title of podcast segment in single quote marks', Title of podcast site - italicised, Type of medium - podcast, Day and Month of podcast if applicable, Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.
In-text reference (Williams 2011)
Reference list Williams, R 2011, 'New lab for ancient DNA', The Science Show, podcast, 22 October, ABC, viewed 31 October 2011, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2011/3345448.htm>.
EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

Blog post

Elements of the citation Author(s) - Family name, Initials Year of post, 'Title of blog post in single quote marks in sentence case', Title of blog site italicised, Type of medium - blog post, Day and month of post, viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.
In-text reference (O’Neill 2011)
Reference list  O'Neill, I 2011, 'Could Kepler detect Borg cubes? Why not', AstroEngine, blog post, 19 May, viewed 5 October 2011, <http://www.astroengine.com/2011/05/could-kepler-detect-borg-cubes-why-not/>.
EndNote reference type

Web Page
Use the Publisher field for blog name

YouTube video

Elements of the citation Author- Channel name Year of posting, Title of YouTube video italicised, Type of medium - online video, Day and month of post, Name of sponsor - YouTube, viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.
In-text reference (Virgin StartUp 2015)
Reference list  Virgin StartUp 2015, Sir Richard Branson: how to start a business, online video, 17 March, YouTube, viewed 23 December 2015, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlPd1i5cGHE&feature=youtu.be>.
EndNote reference type

Web Page
 

Electronic mail list, list server or online bulletin board

Elements of the citation

Author(s) - Family name, Initials <authors identifying details - usually email address>, Year of post, Title of post in italics, Description of post - eg. list server, Day and Month of post, Name of list owner, viewed date - Day Month, <URL>.

The title of the post must come from the 'subject' line in the message. 

In-text reference

(Borthworthy 2 February 2014)

Reference list

Borthworthy, J <j.borthworthy@xxxxxxxx.xxx> 2014, News blogs galore, list server, 2 February, National Journalists Association, viewed 6 February, <http://www.xxxxxx.xxx/listserv/>.

EndNote reference type

Discussion Forum

Year field: enter the email address and year eg. <j.borthworthy@xxxxxxxx.xxx> 2014

Title of Message field: enter the title of the post eg. News blogs galore

Publisher field: enter - description of post, Day and Month of post and Name of List owner eg. list server, 2 February, National Journalists Association

Post Date field: enter - viewed date - Day Month -  including the word "viewed" eg. viewed 6 February

Table, image or diagram

Table, image or diagram

Elements of the citation Author(s) - Family name, Initials Year of publication, Title of item italicised and in sentence case, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.
In-text reference

(Newton 2007 p. 16)

References are placed directly under the table, diagram or image.

Reference list Newton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
EndNote reference type Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing.  

Standard, patent and map

Standard

Elements of the citation

Corporate body issuing Standard Year of publication, Title of standard italicised, Number of Standard including identifier or issuing country or body, Publisher of Standard, Place of publication.

In-text reference … steels are classified (International Organization for Standardization 1982)
Reference list International Organization for Standardization 1982, Steels - classification - part 1: classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition, ISO 4948- 1:1982, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
EndNote reference type Standard

Patent

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of patent - Family name, Initials Year of issue, Title of Patent italicised, Number of patent including country of issue.

In-text reference

... gas insulated transmission systems (Cookson 1985)

Reference list 

Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

EndNote reference type

Patent

Map

Elements of the citation

Issuing body - Corporate author Year of publication, Title of map italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication.

In-text reference

… reading this map (Queensland Department of Mines and Energy 1996)

Reference list 

Queensland Department of Mines and Energy 1996, Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158, Queensland Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane.

EndNote reference type

Map

Video or DVD

Film, video, or DVD

Elements of the citation

Title (italicised) Date of recording, Format, Publisher, Place of recording.

Format examples: motion picture, movie, television program, video recording, DVD

Note: any special credits and other information that might be useful can be added after the citation.

In-text 

must contain title and date of production eg. (Strictly ballroom 1992),

                                                                       Strictly ballroom (1992)

Reference list 

Strictly ballroom 1992, motion picture, Miramax Films, Hollywood, CA. Distributed by Paramount Home Entertainment, and directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring Paul Mercurio, Tara Morice, Bill Hunter and Gia Carides.

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual media

Add motion picture to the Type field.

Television program

Television program

Elements of  the citation

Title of television program Year of recording, Format, Day and Month of broadcast, Name of broadcaster, Place of broadcast.

Note: any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation

In-text  (Bryant 2001)
Reference list

The Bryant medical hour 2001, television broadcast, 12 September, Public Broadcasting Service, Sydney, Australia. Written by B. Bryant.

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual Material

Date field: enter date - Day Month eg. 12 September

Type field: enter format eg. television broadcast

Notes field: enter any special credits or other useful information that can be noted after the citation

Episode from television series

Elements of the citation

Title of television series Year of recording, Format, in Title of series italicised, Publisher or broadcaster, Place of recording.

NOTE: Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation

In-text 

(Say no more 1983)

In-text references should contain the title and year of production. 

Reference list Say no more 1983, television series episode, in M*A*S*H, 20th Century Fox Television, Los Angeles, California. Written by J. Rappaport, directed by C.S. Dubin, Executive Producer B. Metcalfe.
EndNote reference type

Book section

Include Writer's name and Director's name in Author field

 

Dataset

Dataset

Reference type

Author(s) - Family name, Initials or Authoring body Year, Title of dataset italicised, Version (optional), Producer, Place of publication, Data type eg. dataset, DOI: or viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

Note:

  • if no DOI is available enter the viewed date and the URL
  • DOI example:  DOI:10.1037/a0017815
In-text 

The data relating to building attributes covers the period 2002-2017 (City of Melbourne 2018).

Reference list

City of Melbourne 2018, Buildings with name, age, size, accessibility, and bicycle facilities, Census of Land Use and Employment (CLUE), Melbourne, Dataset, viewed 7 January 2019, <https://data.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Property-Planning/Buildings-with-name-age-size-accessibility-and-bic/pmhb-s6pn>.

EndNote reference type Dataset

Lecture notes and slides

Lecture notes

Elements of the citation

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible Year of publication, Title and subtitle of publication - italicised, Type of medium, Name of institution, Location of institution.

In-text  (Johnson 2008)
Reference list

Johnson, A 2008, Week 3 Pipes, PowerPoint slides, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote reference type

Book

Series Title field: enter ‘PowerPoint slides

Personal communication

Email or personal communication

Elements of the citation Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.
In-text 

When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter Jones explained that …

or

This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June).

Reference list  Do not include in the Reference List

Social media

Facebook

Elements of the citation

Author of post - last name, initial(s) Year, Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to the first 40 words and in italics, Type of post, Date of post - Day Month, viewed date - Day Month Year, <URL>.

In-text  (University of Queensland 2012)
Reference list University of Queensland Library 2017, The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers!, Facebook status update, 4 October, viewed 1 November 2017, <https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/>.
EndNote reference type

Generic

Date Access field: enter the date of the post - Day Month eg. 4 October

Twitter

Elements of the citation

Author of post - last name, inital(s) Year, Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to the first 40 words and in italics, Type of post, Date of post - Day Month, viewed Date - Day Month Year, <URL>. 

In-text  (UQ Library 2017)
Reference list

UQ Library 2017, Turtles down by UQ St Lucia Lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice!, Tweet, 4 October, viewed 12 October 2017, <https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752>.

EndNote reference type

Generic

Date Access field: enter the date of the post - Day Month eg. 4 October

Brochure

Brochure - print

Elements of the citation

Author(s) Year, Title of brochure - in italics, Description of works, Publisher, Place of publication.

In-text  (University of Queensland, Student Services 2000)
Reference list

University of Queensland, Student Services, Personal Counselling Program 2000, Eating disorders, brochure, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote reference type Generic

Legislation

About referencing legislation

​The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly.

There is no need to include legislation or legal authorities in the reference list unless it is important to an understanding of the work. In such cases, set the list apart from the main reference list under the relevant subheading.

  • For legislation, use the subheading 'Legislation' and list pieces alphabetically.
  • For legal authorities or case law, use the subheading 'Legal authorities' and list cases alphabetically.

For further details, consult Snooks & Co. (rev.) 2002, Style guide for authors, editors and printers, pp. 224 - 228, Milton, Qld, John Wiley & Sons.

Act and Ordinance

Elements of the citation Short Title of Act or Ordinance - in italics Year - in italics (Jurisdiction) - in brackets and abbreviated form Section (if applicable).
In-text

First references should always cite the short formal title, in italics, exactly and in full with date, jurisdiction and section (if applicable). In subsequent references, this can be shown in roman type and without the date.

First citation:

Queensland's Criminal Code 1899 establishes ...

or

... Criminal Code 1899 (Qld)

If using the second format, include the jurisdiction in abbreviated form, in parentheses after the title of the Act. ​

Second and subsequent citations:

The Criminal Code ...

Indicate units of division with the following abbreviations: s. for Section; ss. for Sections. For example:

Section 4 of the Commonwealth Copyright Act 1968 ...

or

The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), ss. 6-7 ...

Reference list

Copyright Act 1968 (Cwth)

Criminal Code 1899 (Qld)

EndNote reference type

Book

Add Act title Year to "Title" field. Add (Jurisdiction) abbreviation to "Year" field - in brackets

Other legislation

Bills

Bills are cited in the same way as Acts, however, the Bill title and year should not be italicised.

Example:

Major Events Bill 2014 (Qld)

Delegated legislation

Delegated legislation (including regulations, rules and by-laws) are cited the same way as Acts, however the title and year should not be italicised and the pinpoint will use different abbreviations, for example: r. for a single regulation; rr. for multiple regulations. 

Example:

Penalties and Sentences Regulation 2005 (Qld) r. 7(1)

Legislation from other nations

The titles of Acts of the parliaments of other nations should not be presented in italics.

Example:

Digital Economy Act 2017 (UK)

Unpublished material

Unpublished material - Item from a collection

Elements of the citation Author(s) - Family name, Initials Year, 'Title or description of item in single quotation marks', Title of the collection, Number of collection, Number of item within collection, Full name of holding institution.
In-text (Buddies Refugee Support Group 2002)
Reference List Buddies Refugee Support Group 2002, 'Minutes of meeting January 11 2002', Buddies Refugee Support Group Collection, UQFL531, Box 1 Folder 1, Fryer Library, University of Queensland.
EndNote reference type Generic

Unpublished material - standalone item

Elements of the citation Author(s) - Family name, Initials Year, 'Title of item in single quotation marks', Type of material, Identifier (if applicable), Full name of holding institution.
In-text (Peake, 1959)
Reference List Peake, JH 1959, 'A new state for North Queensland', Speech, F2207, Fryer Library, University of Queensland.
EndNote reference type Generic

Unpublished materials - other examples

For how to cite other unpublished materials, refer to Snooks & Co, 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld. (pp 207-208). Examples covered include:

  • Theses - see Thesis tab of this guide
  • Unpublished papers and abstracts presented at conferences, seminars and meetings - see the Conference paper tab of this guide