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UQ Harvard referencing style

The Harvard style is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used.

How to create a reference list/bibliography

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text.

  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.
  • Commas are used to separate each item of the reference/citation. 
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • For electronic sources, use angle brackets (<>) to isolate the web address/URL from the rest of the reference.

bibliography includes all sources consulted for background reading, even if they are not cited in the document. The same method of presentation is used for both a reference list and a bibliography.

Example reference list


Albanese, A (Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government) 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Canberra, viewed 30 January 2009, <>.

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, viewed 06 November 2012, <>.

Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.

Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in WF Chen (ed.), The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 231-61.

Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.

Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6. 

Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <>.

Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.