- A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work.
- If the quotation is fewer than 30 words, incorporate it into a paragraph and enclose the quotation in single quotation marks. Use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote (see examples below).
- If the quotation comprises 30 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text (set in a smaller type), without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
- For a direct quotation, provide the author, year, and specific page number(s) for that source. For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number. Include complete bibliographic details in the reference list.
- Ending a sentence: place the terminating punctuation mark (eg. full stop, question mark, exclamation mark) before the closing quotation marks but outside when they are part of the carrier statement. see - Short quotation: examples 2 and 3
- Short quotation:
- Example 1: Perlman writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy' (2005, p. 41).
- Example 2: Perlman (2005, p. 41) writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy.'
- Example 3: Did you hear her say 'It's a lovely day'?
- Long quotation:
Francois Weil has charted the ways in which genealogy began as a “private quest for pedigree” amongst status-seeking settlers in colonial America until the late eighteenth century, becoming increasingly egalitarian and more widely practised among the middle class and free African Americans from the antebellum era. (Evans & Clarke 2017, p. 169)