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UQ Harvard referencing style

The Harvard style is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used.

What is a direct quotation?

  • A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work.
  • If the quotation is fewer than 30 words, incorporate it into a paragraph and enclose the quotation in single quotation marks. Use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote (see examples below). 
  • If the quotation comprises 30 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text (set in a smaller type), without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
  • For a direct quotation, provide the author, year, and specific page number(s) for that source. For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number. Include complete bibliographic details in the reference list.


  • Short quotation: Perlman writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy' (2005, p. 41).
  • Long quotation:

Francois Weil has charted the ways in which genealogy began as a “private quest for pedigree” amongst status-seeking settlers in colonial America until the late eighteenth century, becoming increasingly egalitarian and more widely practised among the middle class and free African Americans from the antebellum era. (Evans and Clarke, 2017, p. 169)