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UQ Harvard referencing style

The Harvard style is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used.

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Note, there is no punctuation between the author detail and the year. Commas are used to separate the other citation elements and a full stop is placed at the end of the citation.

Single author

Reference type Example
In-text Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994, p. 25)

or

Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that …

or

Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that …

Reference list Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.
Endnote  Book

Two authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994)

or

Cengel and Boles (1994) found …

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list
EndNote Book

Three authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons & Green 1989).

or

Reid, Parsons and Green (1989), as previously mentioned, ...

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list 

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list
EndNote  Book

Four or more authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008).

or

Jull et al. (2008) have argued …

  • Show only the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'
Reference list 

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

  • List all of the authors' names in the reference list.
EndNote  Book

No author

Reference type Example
In-text 

… already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004).

or

In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example …

Reference list  Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
EndNote  Book

Multiple works by the same author

Reference type Example
In-text 

… geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004, 2006).

... geology of Queensland's national parks (Willmott 2004, p. 34; 2006, p.57)

  • Separate the years with a comma. When including page references, use a semi-colon, as in the second example.
Reference list 

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

  • Order chronologically by year in the reference list.
EndNote  Book

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Reference type Example
In-text  … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a, 1996b)
Reference list 

Dawkins, R 1996a, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking, London.

Dawkins, R 1996b, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.

  • Order alphabetically by title in the reference list and distinguish each reference with a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ... etc) after the year
EndNote  Book

Two or more works by different authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott 2004)

  • Use a semi-colon to separate
Reference list 

Dawkins, R 1996, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking, London.

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

EndNote  Book

Book by an organisation or institution (corporate author)

Reference type Example
In-text 

… in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987).

  • Where the name of the authoring body is long and is used frequently throughout the document, an abbreviation may be used, but it should then be used for all subsequent citations of that authoring body and a cross reference should be included in the reference list (see below)
Reference list 

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Example cross-reference:

AGPS - see Australian Government Publishing Service

  • The bibliographic detail should be provided alongside the full name of the authoring body.
EndNote 

Book 

Add a comma , after each corporate author (eg. Queensland Health,) in the Author field

Different editions

Reference type Example
In-text  … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004)
Reference list 

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

EndNote  Book

Edited book

Reference type Example
In-text  … optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986) 

or

… some findings (Sjostrand 1993)
Reference list 

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

  • Use the abbreviations ed. (for a single editor) or eds (for multiple editors)
EndNote  Edited Book

Book series

Reference type Example
In-text  In defining permutation groups, Bhattacharjee (1998) …
Reference list  Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.
EndNote  Book

eBook

Reference type Example
In-text  The number of molecules … (Kamal 2010)
Reference list 

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

  • Include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, or the URL if accessed via a free website
  • Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in parentheses at the end.
EndNote 

Electronic Book

Enter the Digital Object Identifier (if available) in the DOI field. If the book was accessed via a free website, put the URL in the URL field.