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Chicago 17th edition footnotes and bibliography

Footnotes and Bibliography for the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition

Citing books

A reference to a book must include enough information to lead interested readers to the source.

The title of the book is italicised. 

List the name of the author(s) or editor(s) or, if none are listed, name of institution standing in their place. An author’s name and the title of a book should generally be cited according to how it appears on the title page.

In a note, the author’s name is given in the normal order. In a bibliography, where names are arranged alphabetically, it is usually inverted (last name first).

One author

Elements of citation

Author -- Title: subtitle -- (city, publisher, and date) -- Page number(s)

Footnote

1. Alastair Blanshard, Hercules: A Heroic Life (London: Granta, 2006), 151.

Bibliography

Blanshard, Alastair. Hercules: A Heroic Life. London: Granta, 2006.

Endnote reference type

For a print book use "Book"

For an ebook use "Electronic Book"

Two or three authors

Elements of citation

Two or three authors (or editors) of the same work are listed in the order in which they appear with the source. In a bibliography, only the first author’s name is inverted, and a comma must appear both before and after the first author’s given name or initials.

Footnote

2. Robert H. Kargon, Karen Fiss, and Morris Low, World's Fairs on the Eve of War (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015), 57.

Bibliography

Kargon, Robert H., Karen Fiss, and Morris Low. World's Fairs on the Eve of War. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015.

Endnote reference type

For a print book use "Book"

For an ebook use "Electronic Book"

Ensure you place authors on separate lines

Four to ten authors

Elements of citation

For works by or edited by four to ten persons, all names are usually given in the bibliography. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. In a footnote, only the name of the first author is included, followed by et al. with no intervening comma.

Footnote

3. Janette McWilliam et al., Cyprus: An Island and a People (St. Lucia, Qld: RD Milns Antiquities Museum, The University of Queensland, 2015), 3.

Bibliography

McWilliam, Janette, James Donaldson, Amelia Brown, Sandra Christou, and Judith Powell. Cyprus: An Island and a People. St. Lucia, Qld: RD Milns Antiquities Museum, The University of Queensland, 2015.

Endnote reference type

For a print book use "Book"

For an ebook use "Electronic Book"

Ensure you place authors on separate lines

Edited book

Elements of citation

In an edited book, a work is listed by the name(s) of the editor(s). In full note citations and in bibliographies, the abbreviation ed. or eds. follows the name, preceded by a comma.

Footnote

4. Geoff Ginn, Hilary Davies and Brian Rough, eds., 'A most promising corps': Citizen soldiers in colonial Queensland (Brisbane, Australia: Colonial Forces Study Group, 2010), 5.

Bibliography

Ginn, Geoff, Hilary Davies and Brian Rough, eds. 'A most promising corps': Citizen soldiers in colonial Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Colonial Forces Study Group, 2010.

Endnote reference type Edited book

Translated book

Elements of citation

The translated work of one author is normally listed with the author’s name appearing first and the name(s) of the translator(s) appearing after the title, preceded by edited by or ed., compiled by or comp., or translated by or trans. 

Note that the plural forms eds. and comps. are never used in this position.

Footnote

5. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

24. Rigoberta Menchú, Crossing Borders, trans. and ed. Ann Wright (New York: Verso, 1999).

Bibliography

Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Menchú, Rigoberta. Crossing Borders. Translated and edited by Ann Wright. New York: Verso, 1999.

Endnote reference type

Book

Enter translator’s name in the Translator field

E-book

Elements of citation

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).

Footnote

6. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.

23. Ballard, J.G., The Drowned World (London: Harper Perennial, n.d.), loc. 428 of 2960, Kindle.

Bibliography

Ballard, J.G.. The Drowned World. London: Harper Perennial, n.d.. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.

Endnote reference type Electronic book

Anonymous works

Elements of citation

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title.

Footnote

7. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610).

Bibliography

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

Endnote reference type Book

Subsequent citations

Elements of citation

Subsequent citations of sources already given in full, either in a previous note or in a bibliography that provides complete bibliographic data, should be shortened whenever possible.

The most common short form consists of the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited, usually shortened if more than four words

Long citation

23. Andrew G. Bonnell, Shylock in Germany: Antisemitism and the German Theatre from the Enlightenment to the Nazis. (London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2008), 15.

Shortened citation

23. Bonnell, Shylock in Germany, 37.