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Australian Dental Journal (ADJ) referencing style

About ADJ

The Australian Dental Journal (ADJ) referencing style is based on the Vancouver referencing system and designed for articles published in the Australian Dental Journal. The UQ School of Dentistry uses this referencing style unless otherwise specified.

The Australian Dental Journal Author Guidelines provides an overview of referencing in this style.

About referencing

This referencing style guide provides a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others when you use them in your own work.

Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:

  • consult the Australian Dental Journal Author Guidelines
  • type the title of the item into Library Search to see if it has a suggested citation
  • view the reference lists of articles in publications that use the ADJ style such as the Australian Dental Journal
  • adapt the rules of a similar publication type to the item
  • consult other institutions’ style guides
  • consult the Instructions to authors, if writing for a journal
  • consult with your tutor or course coordinator.

Further resources

How do I reference in ADJ style?

Reference number

To reference an information source place a superscript number either:

  • at the end of the sentence straight after the full stop; or
  • after a comma in the middle of a sentence. 

Your first reference will be number one.

Give each new reference in your essay the next number in the sequence. 

If you use a reference again in your essay it keeps the same number. 

Multiple reference numbers

Sequential references used to support a sentence use a hyphen to join the first and last reference numbers.e.g. 4-6

Non-sequential in-text references are joined together with a comma and without spaces.e.g.7,9,14 or 8,15,17-20




In the late 1990s, Mount and Hume introduced a system based on the site of the lesion and the size of the lesion (1 = pit and fissure; 2 = contact area; 3 = cervical) and size (from 0 to 4).1 The problem is that the teeth most frequently experiencing occlusal and proximal surface decay -- the first and second molars --differ from the premolars and third molars in ways that may affect the performance of diagnostic methods. For example, occlusal surfaces of third molars tend to have more fissures,2 which are often less well coalesced.

The presence of high salivary levels of Steptococcus mutans or lactobacilli does not necessarily mean that the patient has an increased risk of developing dental caries, as it is a disease of multifactorial aetiology.3

Many factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, effect the composition, metabolic activity and pathogenicity of the highly diverse oral microflora.4

Reference list

Each reference is listed consecutively in the same order in which it appears in the text.

1.        Mount GJ, Hume WR. Preservation and restoration of tooth structure. 3rd edn. Ames, Iowa: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.

2.        Brand RW, Isselhard DE, Satin E. Anatomy of orofacial structures a comprehensive approach. 7th, revised edn. St
           Louis, Mo: Mosby, 2014.

3.        Samaranayake LP. Essential microbiology for dentistry. 4th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2012.

4.        Nanci A. Ten Cate's oral histology: development, structure, and function. 8th edn. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier, 2013.

*In-text examples come from these articles:

Walsh LJ, Brostek AM. Minimum intervention dentistry principles and objectives. Aust Dent J 2013;58:3-16.

Bader JD, Shugars DA, Bonito AJ. A systematic review of the performance of methods for identifying carious lesions. J Public Health Dent 2002;62:201-213.

General rules - authors

Reference list


  • List names in the order they appear in the document, webpage or book.
  • Family name is followed by the initials of the authors' first names
  • Each author is separated by a comma
  • Omit degrees, titles and honors following a personal name
  • Place family designations of rank after the initials without punctuation
    • Convert roman numbers to arabic ordinals
    • e.g. Vince T. DeVita, Jr becomes DeVita VT Jr
    • e.g. John A. Adams III becomes Adams JA 3rd

Six or less authors

List all six authors in the reference.

Seven or more authors

List the first three authors then add et al. in italics
eg. Author A, Author B, Author C, et al.


If you mention the authors in-text, when there are:

  • two authors - state both
  • three or more authors - state the first author, then write - et al in italics.

General rules - page numbers

Reference list

  • Include page numbers when referring to a chapter or a section of a book
  • Page numbers must be typed in full - do not omit digits e.g.123-129 (NOT 123-9)
  • Include any letters that appear in front of page numbers e.g. s25-30 - s represents supplement
  • preprints and online articles will often have letters in front of their page numbers - enter them as shown in the journal e.g. em35, ZE04-09, e0117177
  • For electronic only journal articles put an "e" in front of the page numbers. e.g. e23-e29


  • If page numbers are required in-text, place the page number in brackets after the reference number e.g.2(23) or if a range of page numbers 2(23-29)

Sample reference list


  1. Ghazal A, Jonas IE, Rose EC. Dental side effects of mandibular advancement appliances -a 2-year follow-up. J Orofac Orthop 2008;69:437-447.
  2. Koyama N, Okubo Y, Nakao K, et al. Evaluation of pluripotency in human dental pulp cells. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:501-506.
  3. Council for Responsible Genetics. Position statement on cloning. Bull Med Ethics 1997;131:10-11.
  4. Wilkins EM. Clinical practice of the dental hygienist. 10th edn. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
  5. Soames JV, Southam JC. Oral pathology. 4th edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  6. Pharoah M, White SC, eds. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation. 6th edn. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby, 2009.
  7. Sedano HO. Genetics: Part 1. In: Ibsen OAC, Phelan JA, eds. Oral pathology for the dental hygienist. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders/Elsevier, 2009:301-322.
  8. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Health and community services labour force 2006. National health labour force series number 42. Cat. no. HWL 43.  Canberra: AIHW, 2009.
  9. Schmidlin P. Regenerative treatment of a cemental tear using enamel matrix derivatives: a ten-year follow-up. Open Dent J 2012;6:148–152. doi:10.2174/1874210601206010148. Accessed June 2013.
  10. Australian Dental Association. Frequently asked questions. Australian Dental Association. URL: ''. Accessed March 2009.
  11. Australian Government. Budget strategy and outlook 2008-09. Budget paper no.1,2008 URL: ''. Accessed March 2009.
  12. Ingle JI, Bakland LK, Baumgartner JC. Ingle's endodontics. [Online]. Available from: STAT!Ref. Hamilton, Ont.: BC Decker, 2008. Accessed March 2009.
  13. Debowski S. Collaboration and community: Building strength in tertiary education. In: Engaging communities. HERDSA Annual Conference: Rotorua 2008. URL: ''. Accessed March 2009.
  14. Discount dental [videodisk]. Sydney, NSW.: Ch.9, 2008.
  15. Search for fishermen scaled back after rough weather. The Courier Mail. 2009 March 30;2.
  16. Davies H. Downturn fails to douse home ownership dream. The Courier Mail. 2009 March 30;5.

Print this guide

To print or save this guide:

  1. Go to the print version of the Australian dental journal (ADJ) referencing style guide.
  2. Click Print Page at the end of the page or use your browser's Print tool​.

Additional referencing information

Referencing specific formats

Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style: