The UQ School of Dentistry uses the Australian Dental Journal (ADJ) referencing style unless otherwise specified.
The Australian Dental Journal Author Guidelines provides an overview on referencing in this style.
It shows your lecturer that you have read relevant information, it acknowledges other peoples work and lecturers often give additional marks for essays with correct referencing.
At any point in your essay where you write about someone else's information (e.g. book or article), patent, product, image, diagram or idea. Even if you have not mentioned the person, organisation or product by name.
To reference an information source place a superscript number either:
Your first reference will be number one.
Give each new reference in your essay the next number in the sequence.
If you use a reference again in your essay it keeps the same number.
Sequential references used to support a sentence use a hyphen to join the first and last reference numbers.e.g. 4-6
Non-sequential in-text references are joined together with a comma and without spaces.e.g.7,9,14 or 8,15,17-20
In the late 1990s, Mount and Hume introduced a system based on the site of the lesion and the size of the lesion (1 = pit and fissure; 2 = contact area; 3 = cervical) and size (from 0 to 4).1 The problem is that the teeth most frequently experiencing occlusal and proximal surface decay -- the first and second molars --differ from the premolars and third molars in ways that may affect the performance of diagnostic methods. For example, occlusal surfaces of third molars tend to have more fissures,2 which are often less well coalesced.
The presence of high salivary levels of Steptococcus mutans or lactobacilli does not necessarily mean that the patient has an increased risk of developing dental caries, as it is a disease of multifactorial aetiology.3
Many factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, effect the composition, metabolic activity and pathogenicity of the highly diverse oral microflora.4
Each reference is listed consecutively in the same order in which it appears in the text.
1. Mount GJ, Hume WR. Preservation and restoration of tooth structure. 3rd edn. Ames, Iowa: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.
2. Brand RW, Isselhard DE, Satin E. Anatomy of orofacial structures a comprehensive approach. 7th, revised edn. St Louis, Mo: Mosby,
3. Samaranayake LP. Essential microbiology for dentistry. 4th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2012.
4. Nanci A. Ten Cate's oral histology: development, structure, and function. 8th edn. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier, 2013.
Walsh LJ, Brostek AM. Minimum intervention dentistry principles and objectives. Aust Dent J 2013;58:3-16.
Bader JD, Shugars DA, Bonito AJ. A systematic review of the performance of methods for identifying carious lesions. J Public Health Dent 2002;62:201-213.
Six or less authors
List all six authors in the reference.
Seven or more authors
List the first three authors then add et al. in italics
eg. Author A, Author B, Author C, et al.
If you mention the authors in-text, when there are:
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Note: This guide was updated on Nov 7, 2019.