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UQ Harvard referencing style - Print version

This version of the UQ Harvard referencing style has been set up to allow you to print or save the entire guide.

About UQ Harvard Style

About Harvard Style

When writing assignments you must acknowledge the source of your ideas and quotes in sufficient detail so that those reading can locate the item. Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work.

The “Harvard style” is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used. There is no official manual of the Harvard style; there are many variants of this style which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. This UQ Harvard guide is based on the 6th edition of the Style manual for authors, editors and printers, (Wiley 2002).

Note: Before you create your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the School. 

Keep in mind the following points:

  • Write down all the citation details of a source as you use it.
  • Place single quotation marks ' ...' around a direct quote. Include page number(s) when quoting directly.
  • Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your document.
  • Compile a reference list at the end of the document that includes full details of all references cited.

Other resources

Snooks & Co, 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.

In-text citations

Using in-text citations

  • In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses; e.g. (Jones 2017)
  • If the author's name is included within the sentence, only the date (and page reference if appropriate) is included in parentheses and it is best place directly after the author's name. e.g. Taylor (2015) purports that ...
  • A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page or pages. 
  • When including a page number, place a comma after the year and use the abbreviations p.(for a single page reference) and pp. (for multiple pages); e.g. (Smith 2016, p. 105) or (Harris 2013, pp. 131-132)   
  • Place the in-text citation at the end of a sentence, before the concluding punctuation; e.g. ... 'anxiety about the cultural effects of globalisation' (Smith 2016, p. 105). Or, if the citation refers to only part of a sentence, place it at the end of the clause or phrase to which it relates; e.g. This was not the case prior to 1974 (James 2001, p. 10), however  ....  
  • If there is no date provided for a source, the abbreviation n.d. may be used; e.g. (Jones n.d.) or (Brown n.d., pp. 49-50)
  • Separate multiple citations by a semi-colon; e.g. (Brown n.d., pp. 49-50; Smith 2016, p. 105)

Direct quotations

What is a direct quotation?

  • A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work.
  • If the quotation is fewer than 30 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose the quotation in single quotation marks. Use double quotation marks when you use a quote within a quote. 
  • If the quotation comprises 30 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text (set in a smaller type), without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
  • If you have directly quoted words from a source (in single quotation marks or as a block quotation), provide the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation. (For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number). Include complete bibliographic details in the reference list.

Examples:

  • Short quotation: Perlman writes that 'the need or striving for a sense of control is generally considered to be healthy' (2005, p. 41).
  • Long quotation:

Francois Weil has charted the ways in which genealogy began as a “private quest for pedigree” amongst status-seeking settlers in colonial America until the late eighteenth century, becoming increasingly egalitarian and more widely practised among the middle class and free African Americans from the antebellum era. (Evans and Clarke, 2017, p. 169)

 

Indirect citation

What is an indirect citation?

An indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. In the list of References provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

Citing a indirect citation or secondary source

Reference type Indirect citation or secondary source.
In-text examples

Miller (cited in Agrios 2005) found …

or

… it was found (Miller cited in Agrios 2005).

Reference list example

Agrios GN, 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier, Burlington, MA.

Provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

EndNote reference type

Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing. After you have inserted the citation into your Word document, add “cited in” manually using “Edit & Manage Citations” option on the EndNote ribbon.

Reference list

How to create a reference list/bibliography

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text.

  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.
  • Commas are used to separate each item of the reference/citation. 
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • For electronic sources, use angle brackets (<>) to isolate the web address/URL from the rest of the reference.

bibliography includes all sources consulted for background reading, even if they are not cited in the document. The same method of presentation is used for both a reference list and a bibliography.

Example reference list

References

Albanese, A (Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government) 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Canberra, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/releases/2009>.

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra.

Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.

Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.

Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in Chen WF (ed.), The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 231-61.

Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.

Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6. 

Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index.asp>.

Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds.) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

Book (including Author Information)

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of book – family name, initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Note, there is no punctuation between the author detail and the year. Commas are used to separate the other citation elements and a full stop is placed at the end of the citation.

Single author

Reference type Example
In-text Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994, p. 25)

or

Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that …

or

Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that …

Reference list Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.
Endnote  Book

Two authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… from an engineering perspective (Cengel & Boles 1994)

or

Cengel and Boles (1994) found …

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill,London.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list
EndNote Book

Three authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons & Green 1989).

or

Reid, Parsons and Green (1989), as previously mentioned, ...

  • Use an ampersand (&) if citing the authors' names within parentheses; use 'and' when the authors' names are incorporated within the text. 
  • Cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page. 
Reference list 

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

  • Use an ampersand in the reference list
EndNote  Book

Four or more authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008).

or

Jull et al. (2008) have argued …

  • Show only the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'
Reference list 

Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008, Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

  • List all of the authors' names in the reference list.
EndNote  Book

No author

Reference type Example
In-text 

… already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004).

or

In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example …

Reference list  Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
EndNote  Book

Multiple works by the same author

Reference type Example
In-text 

… geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott 2004, 2006).

... geology of Queensland's national parks (Willmott 2004, p. 34; 2006, p.57)

  • Separate the years with a comma. When including page references, use a semi-colon, as in the second example.
Reference list 

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

  • Order chronologically by year in the reference list.
EndNote  Book

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Reference type Example
In-text  … geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a, 1996b)
Reference list 

Dawkins, R 1996a, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking, London.

Dawkins, R 1996b, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.

  • Order alphabetically by title in the reference list and distinguish each reference with a lower-case letter (a, b, c, ... etc) after the year
EndNote  Book

Two or more works by different authors

Reference type Example
In-text 

… rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott 2004)

  • Use a semi-colon to separate
Reference list 

Dawkins, R 1996, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking, London.

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane.

EndNote  Book

Book by an organisation or institution (corporate author)

Reference type Example
In-text 

… in the case of an institution (Australian Government Publishing Service 1987).

  • Where the name of the authoring body is long and is used frequently throughout the document, an abbreviation may be used, but it should then be used for all subsequent citations of that authoring body and a cross reference should be included in the reference list (see below)
Reference list 

Australian Government Publishing Service 1987, Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn, A.G.P.S., Canberra.

Example cross-reference:

AGPS - see Australian Government Publishing Service

  • The bibliographic detail should be provided alongside the full name of the authoring body.
EndNote 

Book 

Add a comma , after each corporate author (eg. Queensland Health,) in the Author field

Different editions

Reference type Example
In-text  … the meaning of educational research (Pring 2004)
Reference list 

Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn, Continuum, London.

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

EndNote  Book

Edited book

Reference type Example
In-text  … optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986) 

or

… some findings (Sjostrand 1993)
Reference list 

Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics, Adam Hilger, Bristol.

Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.

  • Use the abbreviations ed. (for a single editor) or eds (for multiple editors)
EndNote  Edited Book

Book series

Reference type Example
In-text  In defining permutation groups, Bhattacharjee (1998) …
Reference list  Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups, Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.
EndNote  Book

eBook

Reference type Example
In-text  The number of molecules … (Kamal 2010)
Reference list 

Kamal, AA 2010, 1000 solved problems in modern physics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, viewed 3 April 2014, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04333-8, (SpringerLink).

  • Include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) if available, or the URL if accessed via a free website
  • Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in parentheses at the end.
EndNote 

Electronic Book

Enter the Digital Object Identifier (if available) in the DOI field. If the book was accessed via a free website, put the URL in the URL field.

Book chapter

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) – family name and initials (eds), Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

Chapter in an edited book

Reference type Example
In-text  Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows.
Reference list 

Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in WF Chen (ed), The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 231-61.

The editor's name should appear with the initials first followed by the last name

EndNote  Book section

Note: Use this format for an encyclopedia or handbook entry where the author of the entry is known and where it is included in an edited publication.

Encyclopedia entry with no author, or dictionary entry

Reference type Example
In-text

If no author is evident or if it is a dictionary being cited, provide the necessary information in the text. For example:

The Macquarie dictionary (1997) defines it as ...

or

(The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language, 1995)

Reference list There is no need for an entry in the reference list.

Conference paper

Elements of the citation - Conference paper

Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’, Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicised, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s). 

Published conference paper

Reference type Example
In-text  Bourassa (1999) emphasised …
Reference list Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’, Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6.
EndNote Book section

Unpublished conference paper

Reference type

Example

In-text  … estimating partner change (Bowden and Fairley 1996)
Reference list Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.
EndNote 

Conference proceedings

Journal article

Elements of the citation - Journal article

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’, Title of Journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s).

Note: Minimal capitalisation is recommended for the titles of articles; maximal capitalisation is conventionally used for journal titles. See examples below.

Print/Online journal article with page numbers

Reference type Example
In-text

Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory …

or

… uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996).

Reference list  Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.
EndNote Journal article

Online journal article without page numbers

Reference type Example
In-text  … the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace & Chanda 2005).
Reference list  Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/01/index.asp>.
EndNote  Electronic article

Newspaper or magazine article

Elements of the citation - Newspaper and magazine

Author(s) of article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article – in single quotation marks’, Title of Newspaper or Magazine– italicised, Day Month, Page number(s).

Note: Minimal capitalisation is recommended for the titles of articles; maximal capitalisation is conventionally used for journal titles. See examples below.

Newspaper article with author

Reference type

Example

In-text reference (Cook, 2002)
Reference list

Cook, D 2002, 'All in the mind', The Age, 28 January, p. 8.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Reference type

Example

In-text reference

(Sydney Morning Herald 16 January 2018, p.16)

or

... in the Sydney Morning Herald (31 January 2018, p.16)

If the authorship is not obvious, provide all the details in the in-text citation.

Reference list

There is no need for an entry in the reference list.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

News article - online

Reference type

Example

In-text reference (Taylor, 2018)
Reference list

Taylor, D 2018, 'Data breach notification laws will force businesses to say if they've been hacked', ABC News, 2 February, viewed 5 February 2018, <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-02-02/data-breach-notification-laws-coming-on-february-22/9391504>

Include date viewed and the URL

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article from fulltext database

Reference type 

Example

In-text reference (Lampathakis, 1997)
Reference list

Lampathakis, P 1997, 'Tantrums seen as suicide warning', The West Australian, August 11, p. 26, viewed 16 October 2000, Factiva.

Include date viewed and name of database from which the article was retrieved.

EndNote reference type

Newspaper article

Enter “August 11” in the Issue field. Enter “Factiva” in the URL field.

Magazine article - print

Elements of the reference

Example

In-text reference (Walker, 2006)
Reference list

Walker, J 2006, 'See how they soar', Business Review Weekly, 10 December, pp. 24-26.

If there is no volume and issue number, replace this information with the date - day and month / month / quarter or other similar identifier.

EndNote reference type Magazine article

Magazine article - online

Elements of the reference Example
In-text reference (Zahos, 2018)
Reference list

Zahos, E 2018, 'The payday loan alternative that could save Aussies thousands',  Money, viewed 13 February 2018, <http://moneymag.com.au/payday-loans-alternative/>

Include date viewed and the URL

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Add month to (Year) in reference list after converting to plain text (final step)

Thesis

Elements of the citation - Thesis

Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution.  

Thesis

Reference type

Example

In-text  Exelby (1997) described the process …
OR
… processing gold (Exelby 1997)
Reference list 

Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

The title is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks.

EndNote 

Thesis

Report

Elements of the citation

Print:

Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication.  

Electronic:

Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Description of report (if applicable) Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication, viewed date (Day Month Year), URL.

Report with known author(s)

Referencing type

Example

In-text 

… in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox 1999)

Reference list  Mortimer, M & Cox, M 1999, Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River, Environment technical report no. 25, Queensland Department of the Environment, Brisbane.
EndNote Report
Use the institution field for publisher name

Report with corporate author

Reference type

Example

In-text  (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010)
Reference list 

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, viewed 06 November 2012, <https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/child-protection/child-protection-australia-2008-09/contents/table-of-contents>.

EndNote Report
Use the institution field for publisher name

Report from an electronic database

Elements of the citation - Report from an electronic database

Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of the report - italicised, Report description and/or number (if available), viewed date (Day Month Year), Name of database.

When referencing a report from a Library database, do not include the URL. Include the name of the database and the date you accessed it.

Ensure that you differentiate between the name of the database and the author or publisher of the information. In the last example below, the organisation/corporate author is the publisher, Euromonitor International, who provided the information through the Passport database. 

Report from an electronic database - with known author

Reference type Example
In-text (Johnson, 2018)
Reference list Johnson, S 2018, Document management services in Australia, IBISWorld Industry Report OD5517, viewed 5 February 2018, IBISWorld database.
EndNote Report

Report from an electronic database - organisational author

Reference type Example
In-text (Euromonitor, 2017)
Reference list Euromonitor 2017, Footwear in Australia, Country report, viewed 2 December 2017, Passport database.
EndNote Report

Webpage

Elements of the citation - Webpage

Author(s) of page – (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicised, Publisher, sponsor or host of the webpage, Place of publication of the webpage, viewed date, URL. 

For a document within a website, consider it in the same way as a published document or book. The following elements should be applied:

Author(s), editor(s) or compiler - (person or organisation) Year (created or revised), Title of document - italicised, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), Publisher or sponsor of the document, viewed date, URL.

For the URL, include the full location details if they are necessary to locate the specific document, otherwise include the URL of the main webpage from which the document can be located.

Web page with author

Reference type Example 
In-text … this agreement (Albanese 2009)
Reference list  Albanese, A (Minister for Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government) 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Canberra, viewed 30 January 2009, <http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/releases/2009>.
EndNote Web Page

Web page - no author

Reference type

Example

In-text

(Behaviour modification 2007)

Use title instead of author name.

Reference list 

Behaviour modification 2007, viewed 31 August 2011, <http://www.educational.org.uk/behaviour.html>.

EndNote Webpage

Web page with no date of publication

Reference type

Example

In-text  … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.)
Reference list Bliss, SE n.d., The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, viewed 10 February 2008, <http://eqi.org/mgtpaper.htm>.
EndNote Web Page

Web page with institutional or organisational author

Reference type Example
In-text 

(Queensland Health 2017)

Reference list  Queensland Health 2017, Sun safety and physical activity, Queensland Government, viewed 11 December 2017, <http://conditions.health.qld.gov.au/HealthCondition/condition/20/199/134/sun-safety-and-physical-activity>.
EndNote Web Page

Other Internet sources

Elements of the citation

Author(s) Year, Title - italicised, type of medium, Day and Month (if applicable), Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), viewed date, URL.

Podcasts

Reference type Example
In-text (Williams 2011)
Reference list Williams, R 2011, 'New lab for ancient DNA', The Science Show, podcast, 22 October, ABC, viewed 31 October 2011, <http://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2011/3345448.htm>.
EndNote

Audiovisual material

Blog post

Elements of the citation:

Author(s) Year of post, 'Title of blogpost' - in single quotation marks, Title of blogsite - in italics, Description of post, Day and Month of post, Viewed date, URL.

Reference type Example
In-text (O’Neill 2011)
Reference list  O'Neill, I 2011, 'Could Kepler Detect Borg Cubes? Why Not', AstroEngine, blog post, 19 May, viewed 5 October 2011, <http://www.astroengine.com/2011/05/could-kepler-detect-borg-cubes-why-not/>.
EndNote

Web Page
Use the publisher field for blog name

YouTube video

Reference type Example
In-text

(Virgin StartUp 2015)

Reference list Virgin StartUp 2015, Sir Richard Branson: how to start a business, online video, 17 March, YouTube, viewed 3 December 2015, <https://youtu.be/SlPd1i5cGHE>.
EndNote

Web page

Electronic mail list, list server or online bulletin board

Elements of the citation:

Author(s) Author's identifying details (- usually email address) Year of post, Title of post - in italics, Description of post, Day and Month of post, Name of list owner, Viewed date, URL.

Reference type Example
In- text (Borthworthy, 2 February 2014)
Reference list

Borthworthy, J <j.borthworthy@xxxxxxxx.xxx> 2014, 'News blogs galore', list server, 2 February, National Association, viewed 6 February, <http://www.xxxxxxx.xxx/listserv/>

The title of the post must come from the 'subject' line in the message. 

Table, image or diagram

Elements of the citation - Table, image or diagram

Author(s) of item – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of item – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Reference type Example
In-text 

(Newton 2007, p. 16)

References are placed directly under the table, diagram or image.

Reference list Newton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
EndNote  Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing.  

Standard, patent and map

Standard

Elements of the citation:

Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication, Title of standard- italicised, Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body, Publisher of standard, Place of publication.

Reference type

Example

In-text  … steels are classified (International Organization for Standardization 1982)
Reference list International Organization for Standardization 1982, Steels - classification - part 1: classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition, ISO 4948- 1:1982, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
EndNote  Standard

Patent

Elements of the citation:

Author(s) of patent – family name and initials Year of issue, Title of patent- italicised, Number of patent including country of issue.

Reference type

Example

In-text 

... gas insulated transmission systems (Cookson 1985)

Reference list 

Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

EndNote 

Patent

Map

Elements of the citation:

Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication.

Reference type Elements
In-text … reading this map (Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996)
Reference list Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996, Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158, Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.
EndNote Map

Video or DVD

Elements of the citation - DVD or video

Author/Producer/Director Year, Title, type of medium, Publisher, Place.

DVD or video

Reference type Example
In-text  (Smith 2009)
Reference list 

Smith, S 2009, Excellence in teaching: lesson planning, DVD, Sunburst Media, Plainview, NY.

EndNote 

Audiovisual media

Add DVD to the Type field.

Dataset

Elements of the citation - Dataset

Investigator(s), Year, Title – italicised, Version (optional), Producer, Place of publication, Data Type (optional), DOI or URL 

The general elements above may be included when citing data.  Many repositories also provide recommendations on how to cite data. 

Dataset

Reference type Example
In-text  The data that goes with this article is available (Adams 2011).
Reference list Adams, T 2011, Wastewater treatment systems, 2005-2009, Plant Systems, Brisbane, Data file, http://dx.doi.org/10.5510/SYS5425.
EndNote  Dataset

Lecture notes and slides

Elements of the citation - Lecture notes

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible Year of publication, Title and subtitle of publication – italicised, Type of medium, Name of institution, Location of institution.

Lecture notes

Reference type

Example

In-text  (Johnson, 2008)
Reference list

Johnson, A 2008, Week 3 Pipes, PowerPoint slides, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote 

Book

Add ‘PowerPoint slides’ to the Series Title field.

Personal communication

Element of the citation - Personal communication

Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.

Email or personal communication

Reference type Example
In-text 

When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter Jones explained that …

or

This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June).

Reference list  Do not include in the Reference List

Social media

Facebook

Elements of the citation:

Author of post - last name, inital(s) Year, Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to the first 40 words and in italics, Type of post, Date of post - Day Month, viewed Date, URL. 

Elements of the reference

Example

In-text  (University of Queensland, 2012)
Reference list University of Queensland Library 2017, The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers!, Facebook status update, October 4, viewed November 1 2017, <https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/>.
EndNote reference type

Generic

Add Month Day to Date Access field

Twitter

Elements of the citation:

Author of post - last name, inital(s) Year, Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to the first 40 words and in italics, Type of post, Date of post - Day Month, viewed Date, URL. 

Reference type

Example

In-text  (UQ Library, 2017)
Reference list

UQ Library 2017, Turtles down by UQ St Lucia Lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice!, Tweet, 4 October, viewed 12 October 2017, <https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752>.

EndNote 

Generic

Add Month Day to Date Access field

Brochure

Elements of the citation - Brochure

Author Year, Title of brochure - in italics, Description of works, Publisher, Place of publication.

Brochure - print

Reference type

Example

In-text  (University of Queensland, Student Services, 2000)
Reference list

University of Queensland, Student Services, Personal Counselling Program 2000, Eating disorders, brochure, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote  Generic

Television program

Television program

Elements of the citation:

Title of television program Year of recording, Format, Day and month broadcast, Name of broadcaster, Place of broadcast. 

Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.

Reference type

Example

In-text  (Bryant, 2001)
Reference list

The Bryant medical hour 2001, television broadcast, 12 September, Public Broadcasting Service, Sydney, Australia. Written by B. Bryant.

EndNote

Audiovisual material

In Date field, add “12 September”.

Add “Television broadcast” to the Type field.

Episode from television series

Elements of the citation:

Title of television series episode Year of recording, Format, in Title of series, Publisher or broadcaster, Place of recording. 

Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation. 

Reference type

 Example

In-text 

(Say no more 1983)

In-text references should contain the title and year of production. 

Reference list Say no more 1983, television series episode, in M*A*S*H, 20th Century Fox Television, Los Angeles, California. Written by J. Rappaport, directed by C.S. Dubin, Executive Producer B. Metcalfe.
EndNote 

Book section

Include Writer's name and Director's name in Author field

 

Legislation

About referencing legislation

​The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly.

There is no need to include legislation or legal authorities in the reference list unless it is important to an understanding of the work. In such cases, set the list apart from the main reference list under the relevant subheading.

  • For legislation, use the subheading 'Legislation' and list pieces alphabetically.
  • For legal authorities or case law, use the subheading 'Legal authorities' and list cases alphabetically.

For further details, consult Snooks & Co. (rev.) 2002, Style guide for authors, editors and printers, pp. 224 - 228, Milton, Qld, John Wiley & Sons.

Act and Ordinance

Elements of the citation:

Short Title of Act or Ordinance - in italics Year - in italics  (Jurisdiction) - in brackets and abbreviated form Section (if applicable).

Reference list Example
In-text

First references should always cite the short formal title, in italics, exactly and in full with date, jurisdiction and section (if applicable). In subsequent references, this can be shown in roman type and without the date.

First citation:

Queensland's Criminal Code 1899 establishes ...

or

... Criminal Code 1899 (Qld)

If using the second format, include the jurisdiction in abbreviated form, in parentheses after the title of the Act. ​

Second and subsequent citations:

The Criminal Code ...

Indicate units of division with the following abbreviations: s. for Section; ss. for Sections. For example:

Section 4 of the Commonwealth Copyright Act 1968 ...

or

The Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), ss. 6-7 ...

Reference list

Copyright Act 1968 (Cwth)

Criminal Code 1899 (Qld)

EndNote

Book

Add Act title Year to "Title" field. Add (Jurisdiction) abbreviation to "Year" field - in brackets

Other legislation

Bills

Bills are cited in the same way as Acts, however, the Bill title and year should not be italicised.

Example:

Major Events Bill 2014 (Qld)

Delegated legislation

Delegated legislation (including regulations, rules and by-laws) are cited the same way as Acts, however the title and year should not be italicised and the pinpoint will use different abbreviations, for example: r. for a single regulation; rr. for multiple regulations. 

Example:

Penalties and Sentences Regulation 2005 (Qld) r. 7(1)

Legislation from other nations

The titles of Acts of the parliaments of other nations should not be presented in italics.

Example:

Digital Economy Act 2017 (UK)