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APA 6th referencing style - print version

This version of the APA 6th referencing style guide has been set up to allow you to print or save the entire guide.

About APA 6th

About APA 6th

The “APA style” is an author-date style for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications. This guide is based on the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" 6th edition (2010).

Always check with your lecturer or tutor about the bibliographic style preferred by the School. There may be differences in the style recommended by the School.

In-text references

Using in-text references

  • In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • Place in-text reference before the full stop eg. .... this week (Johns, 2017).
  • A page number is included when using a direct quote. Place a comma after the year. Use p. for single page, pp. for multiple pages eg. (Harris, 2012, p. 164) or (Lewis, 2016, pp. 56-58).
  • When you paraphrase a passage, or refer to an idea contained in another work, a page number is not required. However, it is "encouraged", especially when you are referring to a long work and the page numbers might be useful to the reader.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used eg. (Harris, n.d.)
  • if work is not yet published but published online ahead of the print, use "in press" eg. (Taylor, in press)

Works with same author(s) and same year

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title. The first reference listed uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
  • If "in press" is used, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use this format each time the references are used in-text. This includes for a single reference within a parentheses or multiple works in same parentheses.

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010b)

(Jordan & Kendall, in press-c)

Multiple works within same reference

Two or more works by different authors within same reference

  • List works alphabetically (as they appear in the reference list)
  • Separate references with a semicolon ;

(Noble, Rogers, & Bennett, 2015; Walker, 2011)


Two or more works by the same author within same reference

  • Order references by year of publication
  • Put any "in press" references last
  • Only use the author last name or groups name once then list the years

(Lewis, 2012, 2015, 2016, in press)

(Education Queensland, 2011, 2013)

(Education Queensland, 2011; Lewis, 2012, 2015, 2016, in press)


Two or more works by the same author published in the same year, in the same reference

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title.
  • Repeat each year with each letter used ie. don't put 2014a, b, c.
  • If "in press" is used, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use this format each time the references are used in-text. 

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a, 2010b, in press-c)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a, 2010b; Mitchell & Clarke, 2004; Tourism Queensland, 2009)

Work with no author(s) or editor(s) - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

("First words of article, chapter title", Year)

"First words of article, chapter title" (Year)

(Title of book, journal, Year)

Title of book, journal (Year)

("First words of article, chapter title", Year)

"First words of article, chapter title" (Year)

(Title of book, journal, Year)

Title of book, journal (Year)

Example

("Social media", 2013)

"Social media" (2013)

(Social media security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

("Social media", 2013)

"Social media" (2013)

(Social media security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

Double quotation marks "....." - use for title of article, chapter or web page with no author

Italicise - use for title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author

Authors with same last name - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name,  Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

Example

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

 

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 

If the same author last name is found as second, third etc authors, initials are NOT used.

Initials are included even if year of publication differs.

For more than two authors, use as format as required by APA 6th (see above examples)

Direct quotations

What is a direct quotation?

A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.

If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks. Place before the full stop.

David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show" (Dickens, 1869, p. 1).

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

Format of a direct quotation in-text reference

If you have directly quoted words from a source (in inverted commas, or in an indented paragraph), provide the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation. (For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number.)

The in-text reference will look like:- 

(Smith, 2003, p. 105)

(Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50)

Smith (2003) has argued that "......" (p. 105)

As Brown (1999) found "......" (pp. 49-50) 

Placement of a direct quotation in-text reference

  • If the direct quote is part of a sentence, place the in-text reference directly after the quote and continue with the sentence. For example:-

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "...has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586) and can encompass....

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586) and can encompass....

  • If the direct quote is at the end of a sentence, include the in-text reference directly after the quote and end with a full stop.

"Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586).

Indirect citation or secondary source

What is an indirect citation or secondary source?

An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • Include both the original author and the author of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference. 
  • Add "as cited in" before the author in the in-text reference. For example - (as cited in Lewis, 2019).
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the author of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.

Citing a indirect citation or secondary source

Elements of the reference Follow the format of the reference in which you found the indirect citation.
In-text reference

(Original author last name, as cited in Author last name of work where quote found, Year)

Miller (as cited in Agrios, 2005) found …

… it was found (Miller, as cited in Agrios, 2005).

Reference list

Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Burlington, MA.: Elsevier Academic Press.

EndNote reference type

Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing.

Add “as cited in” manually in the "Prefix" box, using “Edit Citation” option. 

Reference list

Creating a reference list

  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author last name.
  • If a reference has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • Each reference appears on a new line.
  • Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent.

Morawska, A., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self-administered behavioral family intervention for parents of toddlers: Part I. Efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 10-19. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.10

  • References should not be numbered.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used
  • Use the full journal name, not the abbreviated name.

Difference between reference list and bibliography

  • A reference list only includes the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document.
  • A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background reading, even if they are not cited in the document

Titles

  • Article or chapter titles use sentence case - the first word uses a capital letter with each subsequent word in lower case. The exceptions are for names eg. countries and after a colon: eg. Writing prose in Australia: Words of wisdom from the best
  • Books (including for book chapters) and reports titles use sentence caseThese should also be italicised eg. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association.
  • Journal, magazine and newspaper titles should be provided in full and use capitals where appropriate (rather than sentence case) eg. Psychological Review. These should be italicised.
  • Website titles should be italicised if the work can be considered to stand alone eg. government report. If the work is part of the page and can't be considered to stand alone, the title should not be italicised. 

Publisher details

  • For places of publication in the USA, include the city/town and the state, using the official USA Postal Service 2 letter abbreviations eg. Boston, MA
  • For places of publication outside the USA, include the city/town and country eg. Brisbane, Australia
  • For publisher names, words like "Co.", "Publishers" or "Inc." should not be included. For example, use Springer, not Springer Publishers.
  • If there are more than two locations recorded for a place of publication, use the location that is listed first.

Multiple works with same author(s) and same year

  • Arrange works with the same author(s) and same year alphabetically by title in the reference list.
  • Add the relevant letter after the year (which is used for in-text references). The first reference listed uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
  • If the date is either "in press" or n.d. (for no date), include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. (in press-a) or (n.d.-a)

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation. Paper presented at the 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility. Paper presented at the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX.

Example reference list

Community. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd Rev. ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199533008.001.0001/acref-9780199533008-e-337?rskey=wDCUCP&result=1&q=community

Carson-Chahhoud, K. V., Ameer, F., Sayehmiri, K., Hnin, K., van, A. J. E., Sayehmiri, F., . . . Smith, B. J. (2017). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001006.pub3/abstract doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001006.pub3

Dutton, W. H. (2013). Oxford handbook of Internet studies. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Elvrum, A. K. G. (2016). Assessment of hand function in children with bilateral cerebral palsy. (Doctor of Philosophy), Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Gull, F., Ceccacci, S., Menghi, R., & Germani, M. (2016). An adaptive smart system to foster disabled and elderly people in kitchen-related task. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 9th ACM International Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, Corfu Island, Greece.

Morawska, A., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Self-administered behavioral family intervention for parents of toddlers: Part I. Efficacy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 10-19. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.1.10

Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia's gambling industries: inquiry report. (10). Australia: Author.

Scheinin, P. (2009). Using student assessment to improve teaching and educational policy. In M. O'Keefe, E. Webb, & K. Hoad (Eds.), Assessment and student learning: Collecting, interpreting and using data to inform teaching (pp. 12-14). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Seow, W. K., Clifford, H., Battistutta, D., Morawska, A., & Holcombe, T. (2009). Case-control study of early childhood caries in Australia. Caries Research, 43(1), 25-35. doi:10.1159/000189704

Siegel, R. D., & Yalom, V. (2016). Integrating mindfulness into counseling and psychotherapy. San Francisco, CA: Kanopy Streaming.

The Coca-Cola Company. (2017). 2016 sustainability report. Retrieved from The Cocoa Cola Company website: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability–update/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-ColaCompany.pdf

Author information

One work by one author - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format (Author last name, Year) (Author last name, Year)
Example

.....finding information (Berkman, 1994)

OR

Berkman (1994) claimed that …

....finding information (Berkman, 1994)

OR

Berkman (1994) claimed that …

One work with two authors - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format (Author last name & Author last name, Year) (Author last name & Author last name, Year)
Example

(Kendall & Watson, 2015)

Kendall and Watson (2015)

(Kendall & Watson, 2015)

Kendall and Watson (2015)

One work with three to five authors - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Author last name, Author last name, Author last name, & Author last name, Year)

Author last name, Author last name, Author last name, and Author last name, (Year)

(First Author last name et al., Year)
Example

(Hoges, Jensen, Olsen, & Forgan, 2013)

Hoges, Jensen, Olsen, and Forgan (2013)

(Hoges et al., 2013)

Hoges et al. (2013)

One work with six or more authors - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(First author last name et al., Year)

First author last name et al. (Year)

(First author last name et al., Year)

First author last name et al. (Year)

Example

(Johnson et al., 2016)

Johnson et al. (2016)

(Johnson et al., 2016)

Johnson et al. (2016)

Authors with same last name - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name,  Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

Example

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

 

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 

If the same author last name is found as second, third etc authors, initials are NOT used.

Initials are included even if year of publication differs.

For more than two authors, use as format as required by APA 6th (see above examples)

Different authors with same last name and first initial - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Author - full first name last name, Year)

Author - full first name last name (Year) has argued that ....

 

(Author - full first name last name, Year)

Author - full first name last name (Year) has argued that ....

 

Example

(Jessica Lewis, 2017)

Jessica Lewis (2017) has argued that ....

(James Lewis, 2014)

James Lewis (2014) notes that ....

(Jessica Lewis, 2017)

Jessica Lewis (2017) has argued that ....

(James Lewis, 2014)

James Lewis (2014) notes that ....

Reference List:

  • Use author(s) full first name in square brackets if there are different authors with the same last name and first initial
  • Place the first name after the first name initial eg. Lewis, J. [Jessica]

Work with groups as authors (with known abbreviation) - in-text reference

ALSO KNOWN AS CORPORATE AUTHORS

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Group Name [abbreviation], Year)

Group Name (abbreviation, Year)

(Abbreviation, Year)

Abbreviation (Year)

Example

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2012)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2012)

(AIHW, 2012)

AIHW (2012)

Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations.

Work with groups as authors (no abbreviation) - in-text reference

ALSO KNOWN AS CORPORATE AUTHORS

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Group Name, 2015)

Group Name (2015)

(Group Name, 2015)

Group Name (2015)

Example

(Tourism Queensland, 2016)

Tourism Queensland (2016)

(Tourism Queensland, 2016)

Tourism Queensland (2016)

Work with no author(s) or editor(s) - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

("First words of article, chapter title", Year)

"First words of article, chapter title" (Year)

(Title of book, journal, Year)

Title of book, journal (Year)

("First words of article, chapter title", Year)

"First words of article, chapter title" (Year)

(Title of book, journal, Year)

Title of book, journal (Year)

Example

("Social media", 2013)

"Social media" (2013)

(Social media security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

("Social media", 2013)

"Social media" (2013)

(Social media security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

Double quotation marks "....." - use for title of article, chapter or web page with no author

Italicise - use for title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author

Work with Anonymous designated as author - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Anonymous listed as author name, 1996)

Anonymous listed as author name (1996)

(Anonymous listed as author name, 1996)

Anonymous listed as author name(1996)

Example

(Anonymous, 1996)

Anonymous (1996)

(Anonymous, 1996)

Anonymous (1996)

Only ever use Anonymous when it is the listed author. If no author is listed, use the title. See "Work with no author(s) or editor(s)".

Abbreviating corporate authors or groups as authors

“The names of groups that serve as authors (eg. corporations, associations, government agencies…) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some groups are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty. If the name is long… and the abbreviation is familiar…, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations. If the name is short or if the abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out the same each time it occurs”. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 176)

Corporate author - organisation, association, company, government department

Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

One work with multiple authors with same last name & same year - in-text reference

In-text reference:

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Author last name, Author last name, Author last name & Author last name, 2017)

Author last name, Author last name, Author last name and Author last name (2017)

Follow usual format required for number of authors.

(Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al., 2017)

Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al. (2017)

Follow usual format required for number of authors.

Example

(Harris, Lewis, Peterson & Kendall, 2017)

Harris, Lewis, Johnson and Taylor (2017)

Include author last name and as many of the subsequent author last names to distinguish them.

 

(Harris, Lewis, Peterson et al., 2017

Harris, Lewis, Johnson, et al. (2017)

Include author last name and as many of the subsequent author last names to distinguish them. For remaining authors, replace with et al.

 

One author - reference list

Format

Author(s) – last name and initials.

Example

Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. New York, NY: Harper Perrenial.

Two authors - reference list

Format

List both author names - last name, initials. Use & between the author names. 

Example

Moir, A. & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. London, England: Mandarin.

Three to five authors - reference list

Format

List all author names - last name, initials.

Use & between last two author names.

Example

O'Keefe, J. H., Bell, D. S. H., & Wyne, K.L. (2009). Diabetes essentials. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Six or seven authors - reference list

Format

List all author names - last name, initials.

Use & between last two author names.

Example

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N. F., Keddie, A., Lets, W., & Mackay, J. (2013). Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney, Australia: Wiley.

Eight or more authors - reference list

Format

Cite the last names & initials of the first six authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name. 

Example

Johnson, L., Lewis, K., Peters, M., Harris, Y., Moreton, G., Morgan, B., . . . Smith, P. (2005). How far is far? London, England: McMillan.

Using headings

Tips on using headings

  • There are five levels of headings
  • All headings work from the top level down, regardless of how many subheadings in the section
  • Each section begins with the top level heading, regardless of how many subheadings are used within the section
  • Do not use numbers or letters as labels in headings 
  • Do not use Introduction as your first heading
  • The title of the paper is not considered a heading. Place the title at the top of the first page and use regular font that is centered. Follow with the text.

Five levels of headings

Heading Level Formatting
1 Centered, Bold, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case)
2 Left aligned, Bold, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case)
3

Indented, bold, Sentence case (first word uses capital letter, rest uses lower case. Also called a lower case paragraph heading) ending with a full stop.

4

Indented, bold, italicized, Sentence case (first word uses capital letter, rest uses lower case. Also called a lower case paragraph heading) ending with a full stop.

5

Indented, italicized, Sentence case (first word uses capital letter, rest uses lower case. Also called a lower case paragraph heading) ending with a full stop.

Example

Results

Outcome of Parenting Intervention

Group support.

Large groups.

Children aged 3-5.

Book

One author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman, 1994)

OR

Berkman (1994) claimed that …
Reference list

Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. New York, NY: Harper Perrenial.

Endnote reference type Book

Two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Always list the authors in the order in which they appear in the publication.

Cite both authors for each use of reference.

Examples:

It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir & Jessel, 1991)

OR

Moir and Jessel (1991) found students…

Reference list

Moir, A., & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. London, England: Mandarin.

EndNote reference type Book

Three to five authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time the reference appears; for all subsequent uses, cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”

Examples:

First instance: (O’Keefe, Bell, & Wyne, 2009)

Subsequent Uses: (O’Keefe et al., 2009)

OR

First instance: O’Keefe, Bell, and Wyne (2009) 

Subsequent Uses: O’Keefe et al. (2009) stated that ...

Reference list

O'Keefe, J. H., Bell, D. S. H., & Wyne, K.L. (2009). Diabetes essentials. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

EndNote reference type Book

Six or seven authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite just the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and year for the first and all other citations

Churchill et al. (2013) argue …

OR

It was argued that…(Churchill et al., 2013)

Reference list

Churchill, R., Ferguson, P., Godinho, S., Johnson, N. F., Keddie, A., Lets, W., & Mackay, J. (2013). Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney, Australia: Wiley.

EndNote reference type Book

Eight or more authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book – italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite just the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and year for the first and all other citations

Johnson et al. (2005) argue …

OR

It was argued that…(Johnson et al., 2005)

Reference list

Cite the last names & initials of the first six authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name.

Example:

Johnson, L., Lewis, K., Peters, M., Harris, Y., Moreton, G., Morgan, B., . . . Smith, P. (2005). How far is far? London, England: McMillan.

EndNote reference type Book

No author

Elements of the reference

Title of book - italicised. (Year of publication). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year.

Italicise the title.

Management is defined as ...... (CCH Macquarie Dictionary, 1993)

OR

CCH Macquarie Dictionary (1993) defines…

Reference list

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). North Ryde, Australia: CCH Australia.

EndNote reference type Book

Author identified as anonymous

Elements of the reference

Anonymous - only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Anonymous, 1996)

Use only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”

Reference list

Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors : A novel of politics. New York, NY: Random House.

EndNote reference type Book

Authors with same last name

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the FIRST author only. 

If the same author last name is found as second, third etc authors, initials are NOT used.

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis, Edwards & Galbraith, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis, Edwards & Galbraith (2015) found that .....

Reference list

Lewis, J. P. (2007). Fundamentals of project management. New York, NY: American Management Association.

Lewis, R. (2007). Human genetics : concepts and applications. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Lewis, S., Edwards, D., & Galbraith, D. (2015). Increasing human dominance of tropical forests. Science, 349(6250), 827-832. doi:10.1126/science.aaa9932

EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

List years chronologically 

…geology of Queensland’s national parks (Willmott, 2004, 2006).

Willmott (2004, 2006) found that ...

Reference list

Order chronologically from earliest in the reference list

Willmott, W.F . (2004). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Southern Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

Willmott, W.F. (2006). Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of Central Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division.

EndNote reference type Book

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

a, b, c etc suffixes are assigned in reference list according to title.

(Dawkins, 1996a, 1996b)

Dawkins (1996a, 1996b) has argued ...

Reference list

Order alphabetically by title in the Reference list, giving first title "a" suffix to year and so on.

Dawkins, R. (1996a). Climbing Mount Improbable. London, England: Viking.

Dawkins, R. (1996b). River out of Eden. London, England: Phoenix.

EndNote reference type Book

Book by an organisation or institution (corporate author)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Queensland Health, 2002)

Queensland Health (2002) recommends that….

Reference list

Queensland Health. (2002). Best practice guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

EndNote reference type

Book

Add a comma , after each corporate author eg. Queensland Health, in the Author field

Different editions

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised (Edition number ed.). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(DeHart, Sroufe, & Cooper, 1995)

DeHart, Sroufe, and Cooper (1995) state the idea that…

Reference list

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R. G. (1995). Child development: Its nature and course (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

EndNote reference type Book

Edited book

Elements of the reference

Editor(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple editors. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Treat multiple editors same as multiple authors

(Friedman & Wachs, 1999)

(Everson, 1991)

Reference list

Friedman, S. L., & Wachs, T. D. (Eds.). (1999). Measuring environment across the life span: emerging methods and concepts.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Everson, S. (Ed.). (1991). Psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type Edited book

Electronic version of print book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. [Provider of electronc version]. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised. [Provider of electronic version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(De Lara & Doyen, 2008)

(Ardia, 2008)

Reference list

Add the name of the provider of the electronic version in square brackets.

De Lara, M., & Doyen, L. (2008). Sustainable management of natural resources: Mathematical models and methods. [SpringerLink version]. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp? genre=book&isbn=978-3-540-79073-0

Ardia, D. (2008). Financial risk management with Bayesian estimation of GARCH models: Theory and applications [SpringerLink version]. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-78657-3

EndNote reference type

Electronic book

Enter the Digital Object Identifier of the book in the DOI field.

If the book has no DOI, use the URL field and enter the full web address of the e-book if it was only published electronically.

If the book was originally published in print, enter the web address of the homepage of the website on which it is available.

Electronic-only book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication).Title of book - italicised. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

Use n.d. when no year available

(Stevens, n.d.)

Stevens (n..d.) stated that ....

Reference list

Stevens, K. (n.d.) The dreamer and the beast. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=332

EndNote reference type Electronic book

Translation of a book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of book - italicised (Translator name - first initial. last name, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference (Ylinen, 2008)
Reference list

Ylinen, J. (2008). Stretching therapy: For sport and manual therapies (J. Nurmenniemi, Trans.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.

EndNote reference type

Book

Enter translator’s name in Translator field

Book chapter

Referencing multiple chapters from same book

  • If there are different authors for each chapter, you need to reference EACH chapter you use.
  • If you use multiple chapters from a book with different authors for each chapter, you still need to reference EACH chapter you use. (This is because you need to acknowledge who wrote the work you are using, not the person who edited/compiled the book).
  • If the book does not have chapters written by different authors, you only need to reference the book. (Use the Book reference type)

Chapter in an edited book - print version

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initial(s) and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

Use the chapter authors, NOT the editors of the book

Treat multiple authors in same format as books

(Baker & Lightfoot, 1993)

Reference list

Baker, F. M., & Lightfoot, O. B. (1993). Psychiatric care of ethnic elders. In A. C. Gaw (Ed.), Culture, ethnicity, and mental illness (pp. 517-552). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

EndNote reference type Book section

Chapter from an edited electronic book without DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initials and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Scott, 2005)

Scott (2005) argued that ....

Reference list

Scott, D. (2005). Colonial governmentality. In J. X. Inda (Ed.), Anthropologies of modernity (pp. 21-49). Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/bookhome/117909832

EndNote reference type Book section

Chapter from an edited electronic book with DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initials and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Iacono, 2008)

Iacono (2008) demonstrated that ....

Reference list

Iacono, W. G. (2008). Polygraph testing. In E. Borgida & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Beyond common sense: Psychological science in the courtroom (pp. 219-235). doi: 10.1002/9780470696422

EndNote reference type Book section

Review from the Mental Measurements Yearbook database

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of section – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initials and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). Retrieved from Database Name.

In-text reference (McInerney, 2004)
Reference list

McInerney, V. (2004). Review of the Neale analysis of reading ability, 3rd Edition [Australian Standardisation]. In The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCO Mental Measurements Yearbook.

EndNote reference type

Book section

Add “EBSCO Mental Measurements Yearbook database” in the URL field.

Journal article

DOI or web address?

  • If the journal article has a digital object identifier (DOI), include this in your reference.
  • If there is no DOI and you have accessed the article electronically, include the web address of the journal's homepage in which the article was published in your reference.
  • You can check if an article has a DOI at CrossRef.
  • Not all articles will have a DOI.

Print journal article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s).

In-text reference

(Lowrie & Diezmann, 2009)

Lowrie and Diezmann (2009) have found that ....

Reference list

Lowrie, T., & Diezmann, C. M. (2009). National numeracy tests: A graphic tells a thousand words. Australian Journal of Education, 53, 141-158.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article (print or electronic) with DOI – one author – paginated by issue

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Osman, 2010)

OR

Osman (2010) thought that….

Reference list

The volume number is in italics

Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 65-86. doi: 10.1037/a0017815

EndNote reference type

Journal article (print)

Electronic article 

Journal article with DOI – two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Kerrigan & Kingdon, 2010)

Kerrigan and Kingdon (2010) mentioned that ....

Reference list

Kerrigan, A. M., & Kingdon, C. (2010). Maternal obesity and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Midwifery, 26, 138-146. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI–three to five authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

Cite all authors the first time the reference appears; for all subsequent uses, cite last name of first author followed by “et al.”

First use: (Skenderian, Siegel, Crano, Alvaro, & Lac, 2008)

Skenderian, Siegel, Crano, Alvaro, and Lac (2008) have argued that ....

Subsequent uses: (Skenderian et al., 2008)

Skenderian et al. (2008) stated that ....

Reference list

Include all authors up to seven.

Skenderian, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Lac, A., & Alvaro, E. E. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents' intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 563-569. doi:10.1037/a0013020

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI – six authors or more

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

Use only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”, for every use of the reference.

(Wolchik et al., 2008)

Wolchik et al. (2008) have said that ....

Reference list

Include all authors up to seven names.

For eight or more, include the first six, then an ellipsis - ... - followed by the last author's name.

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., . . . Griffin, W. A. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.843

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI - continuous pagination throughout volume

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Wilens & Biederman, 2006)

Wilens and Biederman (2006) argued that ....

Reference list

Issue number is not required.

Wilens, T.E., & Biederman J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. doi:10.1177/0269881105058776

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article with DOI – available in advance in an online publication (no volume, issue or pages)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Allan, 2010)

Allan (2010) found that ....

Reference list

Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002

EndNote reference type Electronic article

Cochrane Review

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Volume – year is used, italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxx

In-text reference

(Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005)

Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, and Kenardy (2005) stated that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005(2), 1-75. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Journal article accessed electronically, without DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Fallon & Engel, 2008)

Fallon and Engel (2008) argued that ....

Reference list

Fallon, A., & Engel, C. (2008). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The Practising Midwife, 11(9), 1-27. Retrieved from http://www.practisingmidwife.co.uk

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Add the web address of the journal's website (subscription-based journals), or the full web address of the article (when available for free) to the URL field

Journal article – in press

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Williams & Beattie, in press)

Williams and Beattie (in press) stated that ....

Reference list

Williams, S., & Beattie, H. J. (in press). Problem based learning in the clinical setting – a systematic review. Nurse Education Today.

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Put “in press” in year field

Article from UQ eReserve

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised( Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from University of Queensland Library E-Reserve.

In-text reference

(Shaw, 2003)

Shaw (2003) argued that ....

Reference list

Shaw, J. (2003). Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Medical Journal of Australia,179, 379-383. Retrieved from University of Queensland Library E-Reserve.

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Put “University of Queensland Library E-Reserve” in URL field

Webpage

Referencing webpages

  • Do not italicise the title of the webpage when it is part of a website.
  • Only italicise the title when it can be considered a stand alone document.

Webpage - with author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of page – person or organisation, use & for multiple authors. (Year page created or revised). Title of page. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Do not include retrieval date unless the material may change over time (e.g. Wikis).

In-text reference

(Atherton, 2005)

Atherton (2005) has mentioned that ....

Reference list

Atherton, J. (2005). Behaviour modification. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour_mod.htm

EndNote reference type Web Page

Webpage - no author

Elements of the reference

Title of page. (Year page created or revised). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Do not include retrieval date unless the material may change over time (e.g. Wikis).

In-text reference

Use title instead of author name

(Behaviour modification, 2007)

Reference list

Behaviour modification. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.educational-psychologist.org.uk/behaviour.html

EndNote reference type Web Page

Webpage – no date

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of page – person or organisation, use & for multiple authors. (n.d.). Title of page. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Society of Clinical Psychology, n.d.)

The Society of Clinical Psychology (n.d.) stated that ....

Reference list

Society of Clinical Psychology. (n.d.). About clinical psychology. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/about/division/div12.aspx

EndNote reference type Web Page

Webpage – group (corporate) author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of page – group or organisation, use & for multiple authors. (Year page created or revised). Title of page. Retrieved from Web Address.

In-text reference

(Queensland Health, 2009)

As stated by Queensland Health (2009)

Reference list

Queensland Health. (2009). Sun safety and physical activity. Retrieved from http://access.health.qld.gov.au/hid/SkinHealth/SunSafety/sunSafetyAndPhysicalActivity_ap.asp.

EndNote reference type Web Page

Image on a webpage

Elements of the reference

Title of image [Image] (Year). Retrieved from Web Address

In-text reference The image of the rash (Scarlet Fever Rash Picture, n.d.)
Reference list

Scarlet fever rash picture [Image] (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/dermatlas/scarletfever.html

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

Add “Image” to Type field

Other Internet sources

Podcasts

Elements of the reference

Author. (Year, month day). Title - italicised, [Type of media]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference (Al Zaabi & Bjarnesen, 2006)
Reference list

Al Zaabi, M. (Producer), & Bjarnesen, T. (Presenter). (2006, November 7). Diabetes in the elderly [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/hn/talks/

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

Add “Producer” and “Presenter” in manually

Add “Audio podcast” to the Type field.

Email or personal communication

Elements of the reference Not included in reference list
In-text reference

K.P.Miles (personal communication, August 6, 2008)

Or

(L.J. Henderson, personal communication, February 5, 2007)

Reference list Not included in reference list, only cited in text.
EndNote reference type Entered into text manually

 

Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum or discussion group

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title of post [Type of format]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

If only screen name is available, use the screen name for author.

In-text reference

(Winther, 2009)

Winther (2009) stated that ....

Reference list

Winther, M. (2009, January 14). The unconscious is spirit [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/ alt.psychology.jung/topics?lnk

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add “January 14” to Last Update Date field

Add “Online forum comment” to Type of Medium field.

Blog post

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or screen name. (Year, month day). Title [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Reville, 2006)

Reville (2006) stated that ....

Reference list

Reville, L. (2006, September 5). Where to find fundraising ideas [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://nlrp.blogspot.com/

EndNote reference type

Blog

Add Month Year to "Late Update Date" field

Add Web log message to "Description" field

 

Comment on blog post

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of port comment [Web log comment]. Retrieved from: http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Becker, 2017)

Becker (2017) stated that ....

Reference list

Beck, C. (2017, June 5). Re: This is what a librarian looks like [Web log comment]. Retrieved from: https://librarianbyday.net/2017/06/05/this-is-what-a-librarian-looks-like-2/

EndNote reference type

Blog

Add Month Year to "Late Update Date" field

Add Web log message to "Description" field

Email discussion list – web archive

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, month day). Title of message [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Vuinovich, 2001)

Vuinovich (2001) found that ....

Reference list

Vuinovich, G. (2001, April 4). Report on malaria outbreak [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.hcmatters.org/VirtualListserv_Archives/ HCM/Policy/2001/msg016.html

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add “April 4” to Last Update Date field

Add “Electronic mailing list message” to Type of Medium field.

 

ERIC document (limited circulation book or monograph, from electronic database)

Elements of the reference

Author. (Year). Title [Type of media]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Alberta Education, 2009)

Alberta Education (2009) found that ....

Reference list

Alberta Education, Learning and Teaching Resources Branch. (2009). Cree language and culture: 9-year program guide to implementation, grades 4-5-6 [Monograph]. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add “Monograph” to Type of Medium field.

ERIC document (informally published or self-archived)

Elements of the reference

Author. (Year). Title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx OR Database Name (Include database number if available).

In-text reference

(Montgomery, 2009)

Montgomery (2009) stated that ....

Reference list

Montgomery, J.R. (2009). Using audio books to improve reading and academic performance. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED505947).

EndNote reference type Web Page

YouTube video - real name of person posting known

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Web Address.

In-text reference

(O'Brian, 2017)

O'Brien (2017) has argued ....

Reference list

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Remove (Producer) from reference after converting document to plain text (final step)

YouTube video - screen name only

Elements of the reference

Screen name - exactly as posted. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Web Address

In-text reference

(ssiconamed, 2013)

ssiconamed (2013) noted that ....

Reference list

ssiconamed. (2013, July 5). Tutorial NVivo [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Remove (Producer) from reference after converting document to plain text (final step)

Social media

Facebook

Elements of the reference

Author of post - last name, inital(s) [Full name]. (Year, Month Day). Name of the page or the content or caption of the post - up to the first 40 words [Content form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

In-text reference

(University of Queensland, 2017)

The University of Queensland (2017) found that ....

Reference list

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers! [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Remove (Producer) from plain text version of document.

Add Month Day to Date Access field

Twitter

Elements of the reference

Author of post - last name, inital(s) [Full name]. (Year, Month Day). Name of the page or the content or caption of the post– up to the first 40 words [Content form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

In-text reference

(University of Queensland Library, 2017)

The University of Queensland Library (2017) noted that ....

Reference list

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). Turtles down by UQ St Lucia Lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice! [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia 

Remove (Producer) from plain text version of document.

Add Month Day to Date Access field

Instagram

Elements of the reference

Author – last name, initials OR official organisation name [Instagram username]. (Year, Month Date). Caption, highlight title, or profile page title. [Instragram type eg. photograph, video]. Retrieved from Web address

In-text reference

(The University of Queensland, 2019)

The University of Queensland (2019) showed that.....

Use the author name or official organisation name, rather than Instagram username.

Reference list

The University of Queensland [@uniofqldlibrary]. (2019, April 3]. Library upgrades in Central Library are progressing well! A new entrance is being built into level 2 of the building. When the space opens later in the year you’ll be able to walk onto a brand new study floor. [Instagram photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/BvxvoFQFc5C/

Only include the first 40 words of a caption or title.

EndNote reference type

Social media

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Dictionary or encyclopaedia – print version

Elements of the reference

Author(s) or editor(s) of work – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors or editors. (Ed. or Eds. - if editor used) (Year of publication). Title - italicised (Edition - if other than first). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Wolman, 1989)

In Wolman (1989), it was argued that ....

Reference list

Wolman, B.B. (Ed.). (1989). Dictionary of behavioral science (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

Edited book (if editor used)

Dictionary or encyclopaedia - electronic

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In - Editor(s) - initial. last name (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author(s) - family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of entry. In - Editor(s) - initial. last name (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first). Retrieved from http: www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Onwuegbuzie & Mayoh, 2016)

Onwuegbuzie and Mayoh (2016) found that ....

Reference list

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Mayoh, J. (2016). Mixed methods. In H. L. Miller Jr (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of theory in psychology. doi: 10.4135/9781483346274.n192

EndNote reference type Electronic book section

Dictionary or encyclopaedia - no author

Elements of the reference

Entry title. (Year of publication). In Editors - initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). Retrieved from
http: www.xxxxxx

Entry title. (Year of publication). In Editors - initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). doi: DOI

In-text reference (Community, 2009)
Reference list

Community. (2009). In J. Scott & G. Marshall (Eds.), A dictionary of sociology (3rd rev. ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199533008.001.0001/acref-9780199533008-e-337?rskey=wDCUCP&result=1&q=community

EndNote reference type Electronic book section

Conferences

Published conference paper

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In Editor(s) - initial(s). last name (Ed(s).) Title of published proceeding – italicised. (pp. page numbers). Place of Publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Scheinin, 2009)

Scheinin (2009) stated that ....

Reference list

Scheinin, P. (2009). Using student assessment to improve teaching and educational policy. In M. O'Keefe, E. Webb, & K. Hoad (Eds.), Assessment and student learning: Collecting, interpreting and using data to inform teaching (pp. 12-14). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research.

EndNote reference type Book section

Unpublished conference paper

Elements of the reference

Presenter name - last name, initial(s). (Year, month). Title of paper - italicised. Paper presented at the Conference name, Location. doi:doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx (if available).

In-text reference

(Bowden & Fairley, 1996)

Bowden and Fairley (1996) argued that ....

Reference list

Bowden, F.J., & Fairley, C.K. (1996, June). Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: Estimations of effective rates of partner change. Paper presented at the Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians, Darwin.

EndNote reference type

Conference proceeding

Add the month in the Date field

Conference paper from proceedings published regularly online

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of conference paper. Proceedings name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of conference paper. Proceedings name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Herculano-Houzel, Wong, Kaas, & Lent, 2008)

Herculano-Houzel, Wong, Kaas, and Lent (2008) mentioned that ....

Reference list

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H. & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593-12598. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Include a DOI or web address in the URL as for an online journal article

Newspaper or magazine article

Newspaper article with author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication, month day). Title of article. Newspaper title – italicised, p. page number(s).

In-text reference

(Cook, 2002)

Cook (2002) argued that ....

Reference list

Precede page numbers with p. or pp.

Cook, D. (2002, January 28). All in the mind. The Age, p. 8.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Elements of the reference

Title of article. (Year of publication, month day). Newspaper title – italicised, p. page number(s).

In-text reference (Meeting the needs, 2001)
Reference list

Meeting the needs of counsellors. (2001, May 5). The Courier Mail, p. 22.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article - online

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), use & for multiple authors. (Year, month date). Article title. Newspaper title - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Title of article. (Year of publication, month day). Newspaper title – italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Sinnerton, 2017)

Sinnerton (2017) has found that ....

Reference list

Sinnerton, J. (2017, September 19). Nutritionists warn conflicting eating advice from social media creates dangerously unhealthy diets. The Courier Mail. Retrieved from http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/nutritionists-warn–conflicting-eating-advice-from-social-media-creates-dangerously-unhealthy-diets/newsstory/c84145728a2963d1e91b0f9b8f1e9fc4

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article from fulltext database

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), use & for multiple authors. (Year, month date). Article title. Newspaper title - italicised, p. Page Number. Retrieved from Database Name.

In-text reference

(Lampathakis, 1997)

Lampathakis (1997) has argued that ....

Reference list

Lampathakis, P. (1997, August 11). Tantrums seen as suicide warning. The West Australian, p. 26. Retrieved from Factiva database.

EndNote reference type

Newspaper article

Enter “August 11” in the Issue field. Enter “Factiva database” in the URL field.

Magazine article - print

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s), (Year, month). Title of article. Magazine title - italicised, volume - italicised(issue), pages.

In-text reference

(Marano, 2008)

Marano (2008) noted that ....

Reference list

Marano, H.E. (2008, March-April). Making of a perfectionist. Psychology Today, 41, 80-86.

EndNote reference type Magazine article

Magazine article - online

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, month). Article title. Magazine title - italicised, volume - italicised(issue). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

In-text reference

(Flora, 2017)

Flora (2017) has found that ....

Reference list

Flora, C. (2017, September/October). The hardest word. Psychology Today, 50(5). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201709/the-hardest-word?collection=1105674

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Add month to (Year) in reference list after converting to plain text (final step)

Report

Abbreviating corporate authors or groups as authors

“The names of groups that serve as authors (eg. corporations, associations, government agencies…) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. The names of some groups are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, use the general rule that you need to give enough information in the text citation for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list without difficulty. If the name is long… and the abbreviation is familiar…, you may abbreviate the name in the second and subsequent citations. If the name is short or if the abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out the same each time it occurs”. (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 176)

Corporate author - organisation, association, company, government department

Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Government report - print

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of report – person or government department, use & for multiple authors. (Year of Publication). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Productivity Commission, 1999)

The Productivity Commission (1999) found that ....

Reference list

Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia's gambling industries : inquiry report (No. 10). Melbourne, Australia: Productivity Commission.

EndNote reference type Government document

Government report - online

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of report – person or government department, use & for multiple authors. (Year of Publication). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Australian Communications and Media Authority, 2011)

The Australian Communications and Media Authority (2011) stated that ....

Reference list

Australian Communications and Media Authority. (2011). Enduring concepts: communications and media in Australia. Retrieved from http://www.acma.gov.au/-/media/Networks/Information/pdf/Enduring-Concepts-Communications-and-media-in-Australia.pdf

EndNote reference type Government document

Industry/Corporate report

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Retrieved from Organisation Name website: http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(The Coca-Cola Company, 2017)

The Coca-Cola Company (2017) has found that ....

Reference list

Include the publisher in the retrieved statement only when they are not included as the author. eg. Retrieved from Organisation Name website: http:xxxx

The Coca-Cola Company. (2017). 2016 sustainability report. Retrieved from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf

EndNote reference type

Report

Include company name website: Web Address in URL field only when it is not listed as the author.

eg. The Coca-Cola Company website: http://www.coca-colacompany.com

Report from non government organisation with individuals as authors - electronic

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Retrieved from Organisation Name website: Web Address

In-text reference

(Gray & Tracey, 2016)

Gray and Tracey (2016) have found that ....

Reference list

Gray, T. & Tracey, D. (2016). Implementing a trauma informed framework in a disability non-government organisation: Research report. Retrieved from Centre for Educational Research, School of Education, Western Sydney University website: https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/__data/assets/file/0010/1168066/GRAY_and_TRACEY_HWNS–Implementing_a_trauma_informed_framework_in_a_disability_non_government_organisation_
RESEARCH_REPORT1.pdf.

EndNote reference type

Report

Include non government organisation name website: Web Address in URL field 

eg. Western Sydney University website http://www.westernsydney.edu.au

Report from online database with individual as author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Retrieved from Database name: web address.

In-text reference

(Johnson, 2018)

Johnson (2018) argued that ....

Reference list

Johnson, S. (2018). Document management services in Australia (IBISWorld Industry Report OD5517).
Retrieved from IBISWorld database: http://clients1.ibisworld.com.au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/reports/
au/industry/default.aspx?entid=5517

EndNote reference type

Report

Add Database name: web address to URL field

Report from online database with organisational author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) – organizational/company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report Number - if available). Retrieved from Database name: web address

In-text reference

(Euromonitor, 2018)

Euromonitor (2018) reported that ....

Reference list

Euromonitor. (2018). Footwear in Australia (Country report). Retrieved from Passport database: http://www.portal.euromonitor.com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/ portal/analysis/tab

EndNote reference type

Report

Add Database name: website address to URL field

Thesis

Unpublished thesis

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis - italicised (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of institution, Location.

In-text reference

(Rahman, 2013)

Rahman (2013) found that ....

Reference list

Rahman, M. (2013). Using authentic materials in the writing classes: Tertiary level scenario. (Unpublished master's thesis). BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

EndNote reference type

Thesis

Add either "Unpublished doctoral dissertation" or "Unpublished master's thesis" to the "Degree" field

Thesis retrieved from website

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year of preparation of thesis). Title of thesis – italicised (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution, Location). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Axford, 2007)

Axford (2007) found that ....

Reference list

Axford, J.C. (2007). What constitutes success in Pacific Island community conserved areas? (Doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). Retrieved from http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:158747

EndNote reference type Thesis

Thesis retrieved from database

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initials. (Year of preparation of thesis). Title of thesis – italicised (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis. Retrieved from Database Name. (Accession or order number in database)

In-text reference

(Sheehan, 2007)

Sheehan (2007) reported that ....

Reference list

Sheehan, L. R. (2007). Destination management organizations: A stakeholder perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Digital Dissertations. (AAT NR25719)

EndNote reference type Thesis

Dataset

Dataset - online

Elements of the reference

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset - italicised [Description of format or type]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) reported that ....

Reference list

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

EndNote reference type Dataset

Dataset with DOI

Elements of the reference

Investigators. (Year). Title of dataset - italicised [Description of format or type]. doi:xx.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Wong & Langevin, 2007)

Wong and Langevin (2007) found that ....

Reference list

Wong, K.K., & Langevin, W.E. (2007). Policy Expansion of School Choice in the American States, 1991-2005 [Dataset]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR20427.v1

EndNote reference type Dataset

Interview

Transcription of a recorded interview, no recording available

Elements of the reference

Name of interviewee - last name, initials(s). (Year). Title/Interviewer: name of interviewer [Description of form]. Retrieved from Web address

In-text reference

(Sparkman, 1973)

Sparkman (1973) found that ....

Reference list

Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

EndNote reference type Unpublished work

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Elements of the reference

Name of interviewee - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title/Interviewer: name of interviewer [Description of form]. Retrieved from Web address

In-text reference

(Barnes, 1969)

Barnes (1969) stated that ....

Reference list

Barnes, E. (1969, September 4). Interview with Eva Barnes - Part 1/Interviewer: Studs Terkel [Real Media file]. Retrieved from http://www.studsterkel.org/dstreet.php

EndNote reference type Online multimedia

Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research

Elements of the reference

Not included in reference list

In-text reference

Do not cite individually, because this could compromise confidentiality.

Quote anonymously, for example, “Participant A said”.

Reference list Do not include in the reference list.
EndNote reference type Not included in reference list.

Brochure

Brochure - print

Elements of the reference

Author. (Year). Title of brochure [Brochure]. Place: Use "Author" as publisher.

In-text reference

(University of Queensland, Student Services, 2000)

The University of Queensland Student Services (2000) reported that ....

Reference list

University of Queensland, Student Services, Personal Counselling Program. (2000). Eating disorders [Brochure]. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

EndNote reference type Pamphlet

Lecture notes and slides

Lecture notes - print

Elements of the reference

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title and subtitle of publication – italicised, Name of institution, Location of institution.

In-text reference

(Johnson, 2008)

Johnson (2008) mentioned that ....

Reference list

List name of city, state and country. Do not include state if listed in university name.

Johnson, A. (2008). Week three: Foucault [Powerpoint slides]. Unpublished manuscript, BESC1001, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

EndNote reference type

Manuscript

Add [Powerpoint slides] manually

Add “manuscript” to Type of Work field

Add “BESC1001, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia” to the Institution field

 

Lecture notes and slides - online

Elements of the reference

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title and subtitle of publication – italicised , [Type of format]. Retrieved from Course code/number, Name of Institution http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Johnson, 2008)

Johnson (2008) stated that ....

Reference list

Johnson, A. (2008). Week three: Foucault [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from BESC1001, University of Queensland Blackboard Online, http://www.elearning.uq.edu.au/

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add “Week three: Foucault [Powerpoint slides] to the Title field

Add “BESC1001, University of Queensland Blackboard Online: http://www.elearning.uq.edu.au/” to URL field

Video or DVD

DVD or video - physical version

Elements of the reference

Producer, A.A. (Producer), & Director, B.B. (Director). (Year). Title of video or DVD – italicised [Format - Motion picture, DVD, etc] . Place of origin: Studio.

In-text reference

(Smith, 2009)

Smith (2009) showed that ....

Reference list

Smith, S. (Producer). (2009). Excellence in teaching : Lesson planning [DVD]. Plainview, NY: Sunburst Media.

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual media

Add “DVD” to the Type field.

Online video - real name of person posting known

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(O'Brian, 2017)

O'Brien (2017) demonstrated that ....

Reference list

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Remove (Producer) from reference after converting document to plain text (final step)

Online video - screen name only

Elements of the reference

Screen name - exactly as posted. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(ssiconamed, 2013)

ssiconamed (2013) showed that ....

Reference list

ssiconamed. (2013, July 5).  Tutorial NVivo [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Remove (Producer) from reference after converting document to plain text (final step)

Television program

Television program

Elements of the reference

Writer name(s) (Writer). (Year, month day). Title - italicised [Type of medium]. Place of broadcast: Name of broadcaster

In-text reference

(Bryant, 2001)

Bryant (2001) demonstrated that ....

Reference list

Bryant, B. (Writer). (2001, September 12). The Bryant medical hour [Television broadcast]. Sydney, Australia: Public Broadcasting Service.

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

In Date field, add “September 12”.

Add “Television broadcast” to the Type field.

Episode from television series

Elements of the reference

Episode writer's name - last name, initial(s) (Writer), & Director name - last name, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of television series episode [Television series episode]. In Executive producer - inital(s), last name (Executive producer), Television series name - itialicised. Place of Production: Producer.

In-text reference

(Writer's last name & Director's last name, Year)

(Rappaport & Dubin, 1983)

Rappaport and Dubin (1983) found that ....

Reference list

Rappaport, J. (Writer) & Dubin, C. S. (Director). (1983). Say no more [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe (Executive producer), M*A*S*H. Los Angeles, California: 20th Century Fox Television.

EndNote reference type

Book section

Include Writer's name and Director's name in Author field

 

Tables

Referencing tables

  • Each table needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document eg. Table 1, Table 2.
  • Always refer to a table by their number. Statements such as “in the table below” or the table shown on page 78” should not be used.
  • If a table is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the table note (caption).
  • Provide each table with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear below the table number.
  • A table note (caption) should be included the bottom of the table to acknowledge that the table has been reproduced from another source. The word “Note” is included at the start in italics.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • An example of a table can be found here.

Table note (caption) format

Journal Article:

Elements of the table note

Note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Article,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. xx. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Table note (caption) Note. Reprinted from "Using a Gratitude Intervention to Enhance Well-Being in Older Adults" by A. Killen and A. Macaskill, 2015, Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, p. 955. Copyright 2014 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead. 
Reference list

Killen, A., & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 947–964. doi:10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3

EndNote reference type

Journal article

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book:

Elements of the table note

Note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder. 

If you are using it in a published work, include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. at the end.

Table note (caption) Note. Reprinted from Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide (p.83), by P. Glaszious, L. Irwig, C. Bain and G. Colditz, 2001, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2001 by Cambridge University Press.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Glaszious, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book Chapter:

Elements of the table note

Note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Chapter,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, in Editor - first name initial(s). Editor - last name (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Table note (caption) Note. Reprinted from "Evidence About Diagnosis" by J. Doust, in T. Hoffman, S. Bennett and C. Del Mar (Eds), Evidence-Based Practice: Across the Health Professions (p.141), 2010, Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier Australia.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Doust, J. (2010). Evidence about diagnosis. In T. Hoffman, S. Bennett, & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-based practice: Across the health professions (pp. 128-144). Chatswoord, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

EndNote reference type

Book chapter

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Website:

Elements of the table note

Note. Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Web Document,” by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year (http://xxxxxx). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder. 

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Table note (caption) Note. Reprinted from "Health is not the same for everyone" by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone). Copyright 2016 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

 

In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Health is not the same for everyone. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone

EndNote reference type

Website

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Images

Images - from a website

Elements of the reference

Title of image [Image] (Year). Retrieved from Web Address

In-text reference The image of the rash (Scarlet Fever Rash Picture, n.d.)
Reference list

Scarlet fever rash picture [Image] (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/dermatlas/scarletfever.html

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

Add “Image” to Type field

Figures

Referencing figures

  • Each figure needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document.
  • If a figure is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the caption.
  • Provide each figure with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear next to the figure number.
  • A caption should be included the bottom of the figure to acknowledge that the figure has been reproduced from another source.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • An example can be found here.

Figure caption format

Journal Article:

Elements of caption

Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Article,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Title of Journal, Volume, p. xx. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Reprinted from "Long-Term Development of Employee Well-Being: A Latent Transition Approach" by A. Mäkikangas, W. Schaufeli, E. Leskinen, U. Kinnunen, K. Hyvönen and T. Feldt, 2016, Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, p. 2332. Copyright 2015 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead. 
Reference list

Mäkikangas, M., Schaufeli, W., Leskinen, E., Kinnunen, U., Hyvönen, K. and Feldt, T. (2016). Long-term development of employee well-being: A latent transition approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6), 2325–2345. doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9696-7

EndNote reference type

Journal article

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book:

Elements of caption

Adapted [or Reprinted] from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder. 

If you are using it in a published work, include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. at the end.

Caption Reprinted from "Systematic Reviews in Health Care: A Practical Guide (p.61), by P. Glaszious, L. Irwig, C. Bain and G. Colditz, 2001, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2001 by Cambridge University Press.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Glaszious, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book Chapter:

Elements of caption

Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Chapter,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, in Editor - first name initial(s). Editor - last name (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Reprinted from "Evidence About Diagnosis" by J. Doust, in T. Hoffman, S. Bennett and C. Del Mar (Eds), Evidence-Based Practice: Across the Health Professions (p.138), 2010, Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier Australia.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Doust, J. (2010). Evidence about diagnosis. In T. Hoffman, S. Bennett, & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-based practice: Across the health professions (pp. 128-144). Chatswoord, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

EndNote reference type

Book chapter

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Website:

Elements of caption

Adapted [or Reprinted] from “Title of Web Document,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year (http://xxxxxx). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder. 

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Reprinted from "Health Is Not The Same For Everyone" by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone). Copyright 2016 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Health is not the same for everyone. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone

EndNote reference type

Website

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Government legislation

About referencing legislation

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association refers to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for referencing legislation. However, this does not cover Australian materials. 

For Australian legislation, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd ed.) has been used. The examples for this guide are based on this format.

Act

Elements of the reference

Short Title of the Act - italicised Year - italicised (Jurisdiction abbreviation) s. Subdivision number - if applicable. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Long title should only be used if there is no short title.

In-text reference

(Major Events Act 2014 (Qld) s. 3)

Major Events Act 2014 (Qld) states that ....

EndNote: In "Edit & Manage Citations", choose "Exclude Year" in "Formatting". Then in "Suffix" field, type space (Qld) and click on "OK".

Reference list

Major Events Act 2014 (Qld). Retrieved from https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/inforce/current/act-2014-060

EndNote reference type

Book

Add Act title Year to "Title" field

Add Jurisdiction abbreviation to "Year" field

Bill

Elements of the reference

Short Title of the Bill Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) s. Subdivision number - if applicable. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Long title should only be used if there is no short title.

In-text reference

Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23

As found in the Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill (2017, s. 23) .....

EndNote: In "Edit & Manage Citations", add comma space s. 23 in "Suffix" box. Convert to Plain Text as last step. Edit in-text reference to remove quotation marks and add bracket around jurisdiction.

Reference list

Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23. Retrieved from https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/bill.first/bill-2017-007

EndNote reference type

Web page

Add jurisdiction abbreviation to "Year" field

Add section to "Edition" field

Parliamentary debates (Hansard)

Elements of the reference Jurisdiction. Parliamentary debates. Chamber. Day Month Year. Volume. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxxx
In-text reference

(Commonwealth, 2010)

Go to "Edit and Management Citations" in Word and add , Year to "Suffix" text box

Reference list

Commonwealth. Parliamentary debates. Senate. 2 February 2010. 1. Retrieved from http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/chamber/hansards/2010-02-02/toc_pdf/7347-8.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%222010s%202010%22

EndNote reference type

Unpublished work.

Add Chamber to "Department" field

Add Day Month Year to "Date" field

Add Volume number to "Place Published" field

Australian jurisdiction abbreviations

Jurisdiction Abbreviation
Commonwealth Cth
Australian Capital Territory ACT
New South Wales NSW
Northern Territory NT
Queensland Qld
South Australia SA
Tasmania Tas
Victoria Vic
Western Australia WA

Source: (Melbourne University Law Review Association & Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2010, p. 65).

Legal sources

About referencing legal sources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association refers to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for referencing legal publications. However, this does not cover Australian materials. 

For Australian resources, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd ed.) has been used. The examples for this guide are based on this format.

Cases - reported, organised by volume

Elements of the reference

Case name - italicised (Year) Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxxx

In-text reference

(Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi, 2012)

As found in Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012)...

Reference list

Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012) 246 CLR 325. Retrieved from https://www-westlaw-com-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/

EndNote reference type

Web page

Add Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number to Edition field

When document finalised, convert to plain text and italicise title

Cases - reported, organised by year

Elements of the reference

Case name - italicised [Year] Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxxx

In-text reference

(Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors, 2017)

As found in Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors (2017)....

Reference list

Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors [2017] QLC 41. Retrieved from http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/qld/QLC/2017/41.pdf

EndNote reference type

Web page

Add Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number to "Edition" field

When document finalised, convert to plain text and italicise title. Also change Year brackets to square [ ].

Patents and standards

Patents

Elements of the reference

Patent inventor last name, initials. (Year patent issued). Patent Identifier No. xxx - italicised. Location: Name of official source of patent information - usually patent office.

In-text reference

(Australian Patent No. 2013296123, 2014)

Australian Patent No. 2013296123 (2014)

The patent title is not included.

Reference list Williams, L. (2014). Australian Patent No. 2013296123. Canberra: IP Australia.
EndNote reference type

Book

Add inventor name to Author.

Add patent number to Title, including country name.

Add official source of patent to Publisher.

Standards - online

 

Elements of the reference

Name of standards organisation. (Year). Title of standard - italicised (Standard number). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx.xx or Database Name.

In-text reference

(Standards Australia, 2016)

Standards Australia (2016)

Reference list

Standards Australia. (1989). Electrical equipment for coal mines - Insulating materials - Materials for insulating power conducting components (AS 1147.1-1989). Retrieved from SAI Global.

EndNote reference type

Government report

Add standard number into Report Number field, not Title field.

If using database name, add to URL field.

Standards - print

Elements of the reference

Name of standards organisation. (Year). Title of standard - italicised (Standard number). Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Standards Australia, 1983)

Standards Australia (1983)

Reference list

Standards Australia. (1983). Australian standard for sensory analysis of foods. Part 2, Specific methods. Triangle tests (AS 2542.2.2-1983). North Ryde, N.S.W.: Standards Association of Australia.

EndNote reference type

Government report

Add standard number into Report Number field, not Title field.

Standards - using organisation acronym

Elements of the reference

Organization Name. (Year). Title of the standard (Standard No. 1234 - if available). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

In-text reference

First instance:

(International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 2005)

OR

International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 2005).

Subsequent citations:

(ISO, 2005)

OR

ISO (2005)

Reference list

International Organisation for Standardization. (2005). Food safety management systems — Requirements for any organization in the food chain (ISO Standard No. 22000:2005). Retrieved from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:22000:ed-1:v1:en

Do not use organisation acronym in reference list

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add standard title to "Series Title" field.

Add (Standard No standard number information) to the "Edition" field

For in-text reference:

Insert citation. Use "Edit & Manage Citations" to "Exclude Author". In "Prefix" field, add organisation acronym comma space. Do this step for each instance of reference except first.

Personal communication

Using personal communications

  • These can include:-
  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • personal communications are NOT included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

Elements of the reference Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
In-text reference

J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018)

(K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2009)

EndNote reference type Add manually to document using above format.

Specialised health information

UpToDate

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of section – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of section. In Editor(s) – initials and family name, use & for multiple editors (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of database – italicised Retrieved, Month Date, Year - of retrieval, from http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Zachary, 2018)

Zachary (2018) has argued that ....

Reference list

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. In M. S. Hirsch & A. R. Thorner (Eds.), UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from https://www-uptodate-com.ezp3.library.uq.edu.au/contents/treatment-of-seasonal-influenza-in-adults

EndNote reference type

Electronic book section

Convert to Plain Text as last step. Edit reference list entry to italicise "UpToDate". Add Month Date, Year of retrieval to Retrieved from statement.

Cochrane Review

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of journal article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Volume – year is used, italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxx

In-text reference

(Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005)

Shaw, O’Rourke, Del Mar, and Kenardy (2005) stated that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005(2), 1-75. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Elements of the reference Author. Year. Title of report - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
In-text reference

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016)

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016) has found that ....

Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Australia's health 2016. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/9844cefb-7745-4dd8-9ee2-f4d1c3d6a727/19787-AH16.pdf.aspx?inline=true

EndNote reference type

Report

If a corporate author(s), include comma at end eg. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,

Codes of conduct

Elements of the reference Author. Year. Title of report - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
In-text reference

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2018)

The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2018) states that ....

Reference list

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for nurses.  Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx.

EndNote reference type

Report

If a corporate author(s) is used, include comma at end eg. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia,

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH)

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

In-text reference (Allergy, 2018)
Reference list

Allergy. (2018). In Australian Medicines Handbook. Retrieved from https://amhonline-amh-net-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/chapters/allergy-anaphylaxis/allergy?menu=vertical. 

EndNote reference type

Electronic book 

Add Title of entry into Author field.

British Pharmacopoeia Online

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

In-text reference (Aspirin tablets, 2018)
Reference list

Aspirin tablets. (2018). In British Pharmacopoeia Online. Retrieved from https://www-pharmacopoeia-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/monographs/Aspirin-tablets.pdf

EndNote reference type

Electronic book 

Add Title of entry into Author field.

Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines Complete (eTG complete)

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

In-text reference (Principles of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing, 2015).
Reference list

Principles of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing. (2015). In Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines Complete. Retrieved from https://tgldcdp-tg-org-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/viewTopic?topicfile=antimicrobial-use-principles#toc_d1e123

EndNote reference type

Electronic book 

Add Title of entry into Author field.

MIMS Online

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

In-text reference (Betamin, 2018)
Reference list

Betamin. (2018). In MIMS Online. https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/Search/ShowPDF.aspx?xmlDoc=02183.xml&XSLKey=PIxsl_pdf&PathKey=AbbrevPIxmlPath

EndNote reference type

Electronic book 

Add Title of entry into Author field.

Press (media) release

Press (media) release - online

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or corporate name. (Year, Month Day). Title - in itialics [Press release]. Retrieved from http://xxx.xxxxxx

In-text reference (Office of Fair Trading, 2018)
Reference list

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.qld.gov.au/law/laws-regulated-industries-and-accountability/queensland-laws-and-regulations/fair-trading-services-programs-and-resources/fair-trading-latest-news/media-statements/community-groups-key-to-seniors-staying-engaged

EndNote reference type

Press release

When document finalised, convert to plain text and italicise title

Works in non-English languages

Print journal article, no DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initials. (Year). Article title in original language [English translation of article title]. Journal name - italicised, volume - italicised, page(s).

In-text reference

(Guimard & Florin, 2007)

Guimard and Florin (2007) argued that ....

Reference list

Guimard, P, & Florin, A. (2007). Les evaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles predictives des difficultes de lecture au cours preparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant, 19, 5-17.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Electronic journal article with DOI

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initials. (Year). Article title in original language [English translation of article title]. Journal name - italicised, volume - italicised, page(s). doi: DOI

In-text reference

(Le Heuzey, 2012)

Le Heuzey (2012) stated that ....

Reference list

Le Heuzey, M.-F. (2012). Les réseaux sociaux, les enfants et le pédiatre [Social media, children and pediatricians]. Archives de Pédiatrie, 19, 92-95. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2011.10.016

EndNote reference type Journal article

Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

Non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

If you use the original version of a non-English work, cite the original version. Non-Latin alphabets are not used in the reference list in APA Style, so the title needs to be transliterated (that is, converted to the alphabet you are using to write a paper), and then followed by an English translation, in brackets.

Print book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title - italicised - original title [Title - English translation]. Place of publication: Publisher.

In-text reference

(Najm, 1966)

Najm (1966) stated that ....

Reference list

Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi al-hadith [The novel in modern Arabic literature]. Beirut: Dar Al-Thaqafah.

EndNote reference type Book

Source: Example from the website of the University of Balamand Library, Lebanon, www.balamand.edu.lb/english/library/APA6thEd.pdf

References

Works used in this guide

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2017). Quick answers—references. Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx

Lee, C. (2009). Five essential tips for APA style headings. Retrieved from https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/07/five-essential-tips-for-apa-style-headings.html

Lee, C. (2010). How to cite a press release in APA style. Retrieved from https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/09/how-to-cite-a-press-release-in-apa-style.html

Lee, C. (2017). How to cite quality standards and guidelines in APA style. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2017/01/how-to-cite-quality-standards-and-guidelines-in-apa-style.html

Lee, C. (2013). How to cite social media in APA style (Twitter, Facebook, and Google+). Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/10/how-to-cite-social-media-in-apa-style.html 

Lee, C. (2016). Navigating copyright for reproduced images: Part 4. Writing the copyright statement. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/01/navigating-copyright-part-4.html

Lee, C. (2016). Writing website in-text citations and references. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/11/writing-website-in-text-citations-and-references.html

Melbourne University Law Review Association & Melbourne Journal of International Law. (2010). Australian guide to legal citation. 3rd ed. Retrieved from http://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/1586203/FinalOnlinePDF-2012Reprint.pdf