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APA 7th referencing style - printable version

A printable version of the APA 7th referencing style guide. This is based on the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" 7th edition.

About APA 7th

What is APA 7th?

The “APA style” is an author-date style for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications. This guide is based on the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" 7th edition (2019).

Important information Always check with your lecturer or tutor about the referencing style preferred by the School. There may be differences.

About referencing

This referencing style guide provides a set of rules on how to acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and works of others when you use them in your own work.

Many types of publication examples have been provided in this guide. If you cannot find the example you need, you can:

Further resources

Check your APA 7th knowledge

This short quiz will:

  • allow you to check your understanding and avoid some common mistakes when using APA 7th referencing style
  • take about 5 to 10 minutes to complete
  • open in a pop-up window. You may need to enable pop-ups in your browser settings.

 
Contact us if you have any questions or need assistance with the quiz.

Other resources

In-text references

Using in-text references

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The last name of the author(s) and the year of publication are generally needed.
  • They can be part of a sentence (narrative) eg. Thompson has argued that "....." (2018) or included within parentheses or brackets (parenthetical) eg. (Thompson, 2018). 
  • They can appear within a sentence or at the end of a sentence before the full stop eg. .... this week (Johns, 2017).
  • A page number is included for a direct quote. Place a comma after the year and use p. for single page, pp. for multiple pages eg. (Harris, 2012, p. 164) or (Lewis, 2016, pp. 56-58).
  • When you paraphrase or refer to an idea from another work, a page number is not required. However, it can be useful to include.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used eg. (Harris, n.d.)
  • if work is not yet published, use in press eg. (Taylor, in press).

Works with authors with same last name

In-text reference

Format

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name  (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

Example

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) 

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

Include each first author’s initials in all citations. Do this for the first author only

If the same author last name is found as second, third etc authors, initials are NOT used.

Initials of first author are included even if year of publication differs.

Works with same author(s) and same year

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title. The first reference listed uses "a", second uses "b" etc.
  • If "in press" is used for the year, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use each time the references are included. This includes for a single reference within a parentheses or multiple works in same parentheses.

Examples:

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010b)

(Jordan & Kendall, in press-c)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a; Harris, 2018)

Work with no author(s) or editor(s)

In-text reference

Format

("First words of article, chapter title" - in title case, Year)

"First words of article, chapter title - in title case" (Year)

(Title of book, journal - in title case, Year)

Title of book, journal - in title case (Year)

Example

("Social Media", 2013)

"Social Media" (2013)

(Social Media Security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

Use double quotation marks "....." and title case (capitalise each word) for title of article, chapter or web page with no author.

Italicise title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author. Use title case.

Use title case for in-text references only

Multiple works within same reference

Two or more works by different authors

  • List works alphabetically (as they appear in the reference list)
  • Separate references with a semicolon ;

Example:

(Noble et al., 2015; Walker, 2011)


Two or more works by the same author 

  • Order references by year of publication
  • Put n.d. (no date) references first
  • Put "in press" references last
  • Only use the author last name or groups name once then list the years

Examples:

(Lewis, n.d., 2012, 2015, 2016, in press)

(Education Queensland, 2011, 2013)

(Education Queensland, 2011; Lewis, 2012, 2015, 2016, in press)


Two or more works by the same author published in the same year 

  • Place an a, b, c etc after the year 
  • The letters are allocated in the reference list where references with the same first author last names are organised alphabetically by title.
  • Repeat each year with each letter used eg. 2018a, 2018b, 2018c
  • If "in press" is used, place dash between "press" and relevant letter eg. in press-c
  • Use this format each time the references are used in-text. 

Examples:

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a, 2010b, in press-c)

(Jordan & Kendall, 2010a, 2010b; Mitchell & Clarke, 2004; Tourism Queensland, 2009)

Works that are reissued, reprinted, republished or translated

  • Both the original year and the reissued, reprinted, republished or translated year of the work needs to be included.
  • The years are separated by a forward slash /.
  • The original year is listed first.

Example:

(Austen, 1813/2015)

Austen (1813/2015)

Direct quotations

What is a direct quotation?

A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material taken directly from another author’s work, or from your own previously published work.

If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose it in double quotation marks. Place the in-text reference before the full stop.

David Copperfield starts with "Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show" (Dickens, 1869, p. 1).

If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, include it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

Format of a direct quotation in-text reference

  • Include the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation.
  • For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number or a time stamp.
  • Include a complete reference in the reference list.

Examples:

(Smith, 2003, p. 105)

(Brown, 1999, pp. 49-50)

Smith (2003) has argued that "......" (p. 105)

As Brown (1999) found "......" (pp. 49-50) 

(Anderson, 2019, 2:17)

Anderson (2019) noted that "...." (2:17)

Placement of a direct quotation in-text reference

Direct quotes that are less than 40 words

Parenthetical reference

  • Can be added either directly after the quote or at the end of the sentence.
  • Ensure it is the same sentence as the quote.

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586).

Mindfulness has a range of meanings as it "has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (Crane, 2017, p. 586) and can encompass...

Narrative reference

  • Add the author in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets. Include the page number in brackets after the quote.

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586).

As Crane (2017) said, "Mindfulness has become a trend word conveying a diversity of understandings dependent on context" (p. 586) and can encompass....

Quotes with more than 40 words (block quotes)

Parenthetical reference

  • Include at the end of the quote.

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (Dickens, 1896, p. 1)

Narrative reference

  • Include the author last name in the sentence, followed by the year in brackets before the block quote.
  • Add the page number in brackets at the end of the block quote.

As Dickens (1896) famously began "David Copperfield":

Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show. To begin my life with the beginning of my life, I record that I was born (as I have been informed and believe) on a Friday, at twelve o’clock at night. It was remarked that the clock began to strike, and I began to cry, simultaneously. (p. 1)

Quoting audiovisual works

  • Add a time stamp in place of a page number when quoting from audiovisual works such as videos, songs, TV shows.

Example:

(Yates, 2019, 1:14)

(Henderson, 2017, 2:30:14)

Works without a page number

For works without a page number, you can add:-

  • paragraph number (manually count if not listed) eg. (Kennedy, 2019, para.8)
  • heading or section name eg. (Harris, 2018, Behaviour Therapy section)
  • act, scene and line(s) for plays eg. (Wilde, 1895/1997, 1.1.6-8) (means Act 1.Scene 1.Line(s) 6-8)
  • canonically numbered sections for religious or classical works eg. (Genesis 15:6) (include book, chapter, verse, line or canto in place of page number)

Reference list

Reference list formatting

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The reference list is double spaced (between each reference AND within the reference).
  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author last name.
  • Each reference appears on a new line.
  • Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent.

Zarate, K., Maggin, D. M., & Passmore, A. (2019). Meta‐analysis of mindfulness training on teacher well‐being. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1700–1715. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22308

  • References should not be numbered.
  • If a reference has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • If there is no date, the abbreviation n.d. may be used.
  • Use the full journal name, not the abbreviated name.
  • Web addresses or DOIs can either be live links (blue and underlined) or as normal black text with no underline. If the work containing the reference list is to be made available online, use the live link format.

Example

Difference between reference list and bibliography

  • A reference list only includes the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document.
  • A bibliography includes all sources consulted, even if they are not cited in the document

Titles

  • Article or book chapter titles
    • use sentence case (the first word uses a capital letter with each subsequent word in lower case). The exceptions are for names eg. countries and after a colon : eg. Writing prose in Australia: Words of wisdom from the best
    • do not use single or double quotation marks.
    • do not italicise.
  • Books (including when using book chapters) and reports titles
    • use sentence case  
    • italicise the title 
  • Journal, magazine and newspaper titles
    • should be provided in full (not abbreviated) and use capitals where appropriate (rather than sentence case) eg. Psychological Review.
    • they should be italicised.
  • Website titles should be italicised.  
  • No title
    • add a description of the reference used, including the type of reference in square brackets. For example, [Image of a child playing in outdoor playground]. 
  • For social media posts or comments without a title, add up to the first 20 words used in the post or comment and italicise it. Also include a description of the work in square brackets. For example, On Monday and Tuesday (16-17 December) this week, we are replacing computers in the PACE Health Sciences Library [Infographic].

Order of works with no title

  • use the title in place of the author
  • list alphabetically
  • Use the first significant word of the title. Ignore "A", "And" and "The".

For example, 

The best 10 years of Radio magazine. (2003). Radio9(9), 79.

The only 10 recipes you'll ever need. (1998). Good Housekeeping227(3).

Publisher details

  • List multiple publisher names in the order in which they appear, separated by semicolons. 
  • For publisher names, words like "Co.", "Publishers" or "Inc." should not be included. For example, use Springer, not Springer Publishers.
  • Places of publication are not included.
  • Do not include publisher name if it is the same as the author.

Publication date

  • Use n.d. if there is no date available
  • Use in press when the work is accepted for publication but has not been published
  • When the work has been published online prior to publication, include the year of when it was added online.
  • When a month, date or season is used, use (Year, Month Date) or (Year, Season). For example, (2019, November 8) or (2019, Autumn/Winter).
  • If a "Last Updated" date in used, include this as the publication date. This is only when the information has been clearly changed, not just reviewed.
  • For online works that are meant to be changed regularly eg. Facebook, dictionary entry, use Retrieved Month, Date, Year, from Web address. For example, Retrieved November 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/uniofqldlibrary

Page numbers

  • Use the full page range and full page numbers eg. 121-138
  • For an online publication that uses article numbers or similar, include Article then the article number in the Page Number place. For example, Article e09645731
  • Page numbers are included when you are referring to a section of a greater work eg. book chapter, journal article.
  • Use pp. for book chapter page numbers but not for journal articles.

Multiple works with same author(s) and same year

  • Arrange works with the same author(s) and same year alphabetically by title in the reference list. This then determines which references uses a, b, c etc.
  • Add the relevant letter after the year (which is also used for corresponding in-text references). The first reference listed in the reference list uses "a", second uses "b" etc.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 

(Yang & Harris, 2010a)

(Yang & Harris, 2010b)

  • If the date is n.d. (for no date), include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. n.d.-a. It will appear before any specified years.
  • If the date is "in press", include a dash then the relevant letter at the end eg. in press-a. It will appear after any specified years.
  • If a month and day are included, references with just a year are first, followed by specified dates in chronological order. For example:-

(Taylor, 2019a)

(Taylor, 2019b, May 14)

(Taylor, 2019c, August 3)

 

  • This applies to all reference types with the same author(s) and year.

Example reference list

Ballard, T., Yeo, G., B. Vancouver, J., & Neal, A. (2017). The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation [Advance online publication]. Motivation and Emotion, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-017-9640-8

Brown, C. G. (2020). Ethical and legal considerations for using mind–body interventions in schools. In Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals. (pp. 113-128). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000157-008

Carson-Chahhoud, K. V., Ameer, F., Sayehmiri, K., Hnin, K., van, A. J. E., Sayehmiri, F., Brinn, M. P., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2017). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(6). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001006.pub3/abstract

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass. (Original work published 1975).

Dravsnik, J., Signal, T., & Canoy, D. (2018). Canine co‐therapy: The potential of dogs to improve the acceptability of trauma‐focused therapies for children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70, 208-216. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12199

Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication Number 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Malcolm, L. (2002-present). All in the mind [Audio podcast]. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy&oldid=905716408

O’Brien, B. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release]. https://www.qld.gov.au/law/laws-regulated-industries-and-accountability/queensland-laws-and-regulations/fair-trading-services-programs-and-resources/fair-trading-latest-news/media-statements/community-groups-key-to-seniors-staying-engaged

Quealy-Gainer, K. (2014, 16 April). I kill the mockingbird by Paul Acampora (review). Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 67(10), 494-494. https://doi.org/10.1353/bcc.2014.0415

Rappaport, J., & Dubin, C. S. (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe, M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.

Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January 10). Key points about caffeine and migraines. American Migraine Foundation. https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/caffeine-and-migraine/

Siegal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, G. M. G. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 45-65). Guilford Publications. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Tr0N7aGgAS4C

Simon, P., & Garfunkel, A. (1965). The sounds of silence. On Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. [Song]. Columbia.

U2. (1988). Rattle and hum [Album]. Island; Sun Studio; Point Depot; Danesmoat; STS Studio; A&M Studios; Ocean Way.

University of Queensland Library [@UQ_Library]. (2017, October 4). Turtles down by UQ St Lucia lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice! [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers! [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from https://www-uptodate-com.ezp3.library.uq.edu.au/contents/treatment-of-seasonal-influenza-in-adults

Author information

One author

In-text reference

Format (Author last name, Year)
Example

.....finding information (Berkman, 1994)

OR

Berkman (1994) claimed that …

Reference List

Format Author(s) - last name and initials.
Example

Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: How to uncover expert information. Harper Perrenial.

Two authors

In-text reference

Format (Author last name & Author last name, Year)
Example

(Kendall & Watson, 2015)

Kendall and Watson (2015)

Reference List

Format List both author names - last name, initials. Use & between the author names. 
Example

Moir, A., & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex: The real difference between men and women. Mandarin.

Three to twenty authors

In-text reference

Format

(First author last name et al., Year)

First author last name et al. (Year)

Example

(O'Keefe et al., 2016)

O'Keefe et al. (2016)

Reference List

Format List all author names - last name, initials.
Example

O'Keefe, J. H., Bell, D. S. H., & Wyne, K. L. (2009). Diabetes essentials. Jones and Bartlett.

21 or more authors

In-text reference

Format

(First author last name et al., Year)

First author last name et al. (Year)

Example

(Nath et al., 2019)

Nath et al. (2019)

Reference List

Format

Cite the last names & initials of the first 19 authors then follow with a comma and three spaced ellipsis points (. . .), then the last author’s name. 

Example

Nath, A. P., Ritchie, S. C., Grinberg, N. F., Tang, H. H., Huang, Q. Q., Teo, S. M., Ahola-Olli, A. V., Wurtz, P., Havulinna, A. S., Santalahti, K., Pitkanen, N., Lehtimaki, T., Kahonen, M., Lyytikainen, L. P., Raitoharju, E., Seppala, I., Sarin, A. P., Ripatti, S., Palotie, A., . . . Inouye, M. (2019). Multivariate genome-wide association analysis of a cytokine network reveals variants with widespread immune, haematological, and cardiometabolic pleiotropy. American Journal of Human Genetics, 105(6), 1076-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.10.001

Anonymous designated as author

In-text reference

Format

(Anonymous listed as author name, 1996)

Anonymous listed as author name (1996)

Example

(Anonymous, 1996)

Anonymous (1996)

Only ever use Anonymous when it is the listed author.

If no author is listed, use the title. See Work with no author(s) or editor(s).

Group authors with known abbreviation

In-text reference

  First Use Subsequent Uses
Format

(Group Name [abbreviation], Year)

Group Name (abbreviation, Year)

(Abbreviation, Year)

Abbreviation (Year)

Example

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2012)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW, 2012)

(AIHW, 2012)

AIHW (2012)

Important information  Groups as authors include government departments, professional associations, company names, organisations

Groups authors with no abbreviation

In-text reference

Format

(Group Name, 2015)

Group Name (2015)

Example

(Tourism Queensland, 2016)

Tourism Queensland (2016)

No author(s) or editor(s)

In-text reference

Format

("First words of article, chapter title" - in title case, Year)

"First words of article, chapter title - in title case" (Year)

(Title of book, journal - in title case, Year)

Title of book, journal - in title case (Year)

Example

("Social Media", 2013)

"Social Media" (2013)

(Social Media Security, 2014)

Social Media Security (2014)

Use double quotation marks "....." and title case (capitalise each word) for title of article, chapter or web page with no author.

Italicise title of journal, book, brochure or report with no author. Use title case.

Use title case for in-text references only. 

Authors with same last name

In-text reference

Format

(First author - first name initial. last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name  (Year)

(First author - first name initial. last name & second author - last name, Year)

First author - first name initial. last name and second author - last name (Year)

Example

(J. P. Lewis, 2007)

J. P. Lewis (2007) argues that….

(R. Lewis, 2007)

R. Lewis (2007) stated that...

(S. Lewis & Edwards, 2015) found that .....

S. Lewis and Edwards (2015) found that .....

Include each first author’s initial(s) in all citations. Do this for the first author only when there are multiple authors in a single reference. 

Initial(s) are included even if year of publication differs.

Three or more authors with same last name & same year

In-text reference

Format

(Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al., Year)

Author last name, Author last name, Author last name et al. (Year)

Important information

Include first author last name and as many of the subsequent author last names to distinguish them. 

For remaining authors, replace with et al.

If only final author name different, include author name instead of et al.

Example

(Harris, Lewis, Peterson, Kane et al., 2017)

(Harris, Lewis, Peterson, Morris et al., 2017) 

Authors with same last name and first initial

In-text reference

Format

(Author - full first name last name, Year)

Author - full first name last name (Year) has argued that ....

Example

(Jessica Lewis, 2017)

Jessica Lewis (2017) has argued that ....

(James Lewis, 2014)

James Lewis (2014) notes that ....

Authors included as "with"

In-text reference

Format

(Author last name, Year)

Do not include "with" Author name.

Example

.....finding information (Sternberg, 2004)

OR

Sternberg (2004) claimed that …

Reference List

Format

Author(s) – last name and initial(s), & Author - last name and initial(s) (with Author - last name and initial(s)). Title - italicised. Publisher.

Example

Sternberg, R. J. (with Wilson, J. F.). (2004). Psychology. Thomson/Wadsworth.

Additional referencing information

Additional referencing information

Referencing specific formats

Suggestions for citing these formats, if there is not an existing rule in your referencing style:

Using headings

Tips on using headings

  • There are five levels of headings
  • All headings work from the top level down, regardless of how many subheadings in the section
  • Each section begins with the top level heading, regardless of how many subheadings are used within the section
  • Do not use numbers or letters as labels in headings 
  • Do not use Introduction as your first heading
  • The title of the paper is not considered a heading.
    • Place the title at the top of the first page
    • Use regular font in title case (all words except words like and, to, a, the are capitalised. These words are capitalised if first word in title).
    • Bold and centre the title.

Five levels of headings

Heading Level Formatting
1 Centered, Bold, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case)
2 Left aligned, Bold, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case)
3 Left aligned, Bold, Italicised, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case)
4

Indented, Bold, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case), ending with a full stop. Text begins on same line and continues as normal paragraph.

5

Indented, Bold, Italicised, Upper Case and Lower Case Heading (Title Case), ending with a full stop. Text begins on same line and continues as normal paragraph.

Example

Results

Outcome of Parenting Intervention

Group Support

Large Groups

Small Groups.

Children Aged 3-5.

Book

One author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text

(Swartz, 2019)

OR

Swartz (2019) 
Reference list

Swartz, W. (2019). Descriptive psychology and the person concept: Essential attributes of persons and behavior. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-00372-5

EndNote reference type Book

Two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Whittingham & Coyne, 2019)

OR

Whittingham and Coyne (2019) 

Always list the authors in the order in which they appear in the publication.

Cite both authors for each use of reference.

Reference list

Whittingham, K., & Coyne, W.  (2019). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The clinician's guide for supporting parents​. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-01265-X

 

EndNote reference type Book

Three to twenty authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Sheldon et al., 2019)

Sheldon et al. (2019) found that....

Cite last name of first author followed by et al.

Reference list

Sheldon, P., Rauschnabel, P. A., & Honeycutt, J. M. (2019). The dark side of social media: Psychological, managerial, and societal perspectives. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2017-0-04063-6

EndNote reference type Book

Twenty one or more authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials (for first 19 authors), . . . final author name and initial(s).  Title of book – italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Harris et al., 2019)

Harris et al. (2019) found that....

Cite last name of first author followed by et al

Reference list

Harris, K., Johnson, W., Matthews, L., Wilson, K., Lewis, S., Bailey, T., Kelly, M., Norris, O., James, P., Harrison, I., Grant, Q., Vince, J., Patterson, Y., Carson, H., Allison, T., Lang, R., Roberts, G., Gordon, N., Yates, J., . . . Holland, F. (2019). Brisbane city history. University of Queensland.

EndNote reference type Book

No author

Elements of the reference

Title of book - italicised. (Year). Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

Management is defined as (CCH Macquarie Dictionary, 1993)

OR

CCH Macquarie Dictionary (1993) defines…

Cite in the text the first few words of the title and the year. Italicise the book title.

Reference list

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business. (1993). CCH Australia.

EndNote reference type Book

Author identified as anonymous

Elements of the reference

Anonymous - only if author is specifically named as “Anonymous”. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Anonymous, 1996)

Use only if author is specifically named as Anonymous

Reference list

Anonymous. (1996). Primary colors: A novel of politics. Random House.

EndNote reference type Book

Book by an organisation or institution (group author)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Queensland Health, 2002)

Queensland Health (2002) recommends that….

Reference list

Queensland Health. (2002). Best practice guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents

If the author name is the same as the publisher, omit the publisher.

EndNote reference type

Book

Add a comma , after each group author eg. Queensland Health, in the Author field

eBook from database eg. Proquest, Ebsco

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials. (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if stable

In-text

(Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen & Antes, 2011)

OR

Khan, Kunz, Kleijnen and Antes (2011)
Reference list

Khan, K., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2011). Systematic reviews to support evidence-based medicine : how to review and apply findings of healthcare research. CRC Press.

EndNote reference type Book

Do not include the name of the database.

End the reference after the publisher name if there isn't a stable web address or DOI (like a print book reference).

Different editions

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised (Edition number ed.). Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(DeHart, Sroufe, & Cooper, 1995)

DeHart, Sroufe, and Cooper (1995) state the idea that…

Reference list

DeHart, G. B., Sroufe, L.A., & Cooper, R. G. (1995). Child development: Its nature and course (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

The edition statement is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition.

EndNote reference type Book

Edited book

Elements of the reference

Editor(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple editors. (Ed. or Eds.). (Year). Title of book - italicised. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Hoffmann & Bublitz, 2017)

OR 

Hoffmann and Bublitz (2017)

Treat multiple editors same as multiple authors

Reference list

Hoffmann, C. R., & Wolfram Bublitz, W. (Eds.). (2017). Pragmatics of social media. De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110431070

If the book's chapters are written by different authors to the editor(s), you must reference each chapter you use as a book chapter.

EndNote reference type Edited book

Translation of a book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of book – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of book - italicised (Translator name - first initial. last name, Trans.; Edition - if available). Publisher. (Original work published Year). DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Ylinen, 2007/2008)

Include original year of publication and year of translated publication.

Reference list

Ylinen, J. (2008). Stretching therapy: For sport and manual therapies (J. Nurmenniemi, Trans.). Churchill Livingstone. (Original work published 2007)

EndNote reference type

Book

Enter translator’s name in Translator field

Add Original work published Year to Original Publication field

Book chapter

Referencing multiple chapters from same book

  • If there are different authors for each chapter, you need to reference EACH chapter you use.
  • If you use multiple chapters from a book with different authors for each chapter, you still need to reference EACH chapter you use. (This is because you need to acknowledge who wrote the work you are using, not the person who edited/compiled the book).
  • If the book does not have chapters written by different authors, you only need to reference the book. 

Chapter in an edited book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) – initial(s) and family name - of book (Ed. OR Eds.), Title of book – italicised (pp. Page numbers). Publisher. DOI or Web address (if available)

In-text reference

(Rattan, 2019)

Use the chapter authors, not the editors of the book

Treat multiple authors in same format as books

Reference list

Rattan, A. (2019). How lay theories (or mindsets) shape the confrontation of prejudice. In R. K. Mallett & M. J. Monteith (Eds.), Confronting prejudice and discrimination: The science of changing minds and behaviors (pp. 121-140). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814715-3.00008-4

EndNote reference type Book section

Mental Measurements Yearbook

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of section – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of section. Title of database – italicised. DOI or Web address (if available)

In-text reference

(Engelhard, 2001)

Engelhard (2001) has argued that ....

Reference list

Englehard, G. (2001). Review of the Closed High School Placement Test. In B. S. Plake & J. C. Impara (Eds.), The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook. http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mmt&AN=test.2083&site=ehost-live

EndNote reference type

Book chapter

Brochure and pamphlets

Online brochure or pamphlet

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of brochure or pamphlet [Brochure OR Pamphlet]. Web address 

In-text reference

(Queensland Government, 2021)

Queensland Government (2021) found that ....

Reference list

Queensland Government. (2021). Queensland’s COVID safe future [Pamphlet]. https://www.covid19.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/127150/DPC7309-COVID-19-Restrictions-roadmap.pdf?nocache-v27

EndNote reference type Report

Conferences

Conference paper

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Date). Title of paper - italicised. [Type of paper eg. Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or Web address - if available.

In-text reference

(Norton et al., 2018)

Norton et al. (2018) stated that ....

Reference list

Norton, M., Moloney, G., Burke, S., Sanson, A., & Louis, W. (2018, September 27-30). Psychological responses to social threats: From stigma to solidarity [Paper presentation]. 2018 APS Congress Psychology advancing into a new age, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

EndNote reference type

Conference paper

Add type of paper to Type field

Poster presentation

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month, Date). Title - italicised [Poster presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Snoswell, 2016)

Snoswell (2016)

Reference list

Snoswell, C. (2016, October 31 - November 3). Models of care for store-and-forward teledermatology in Australia [Poster presentation]. 7th International Conference on Successes and Failures in Telehealth, Auckland, New Zealand.

EndNote reference type

Conference paper

Add Poster presentation to Type field

Cancelled conference paper

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of paper – last name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Date(s)). Title of paper - italicised. [Type of paper eg. Paper presentation]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or Web address - if available (Conference cancelled)

In-text reference

(Johnson, 2020)

Johnson (2020) stated that ....

Reference list

Johnson, R. (2020, May 4 - 8). Positioning the library as a place of cultural safety. [Paper presentation]. ALIA National 2020 Conference: Courageous And Audacious, Sydney, Australia. (Conference cancelled)

EndNote reference type

Conference paper

Add type of paper to Type field

Add (Conference cancelled) in URL field after web address

Dataset

Dataset - individual author

Elements of the reference

Investigator(s). (Year). Title of dataset - italicised (Version - if needed)  [Description of format or type]. Name of publisher - if available. DOI or Web address

In-text reference

(Wong & Langevin, 2007)

Wong and Langevin (2007) found that ....

Reference list

Wong, K. K., & Langevin, W. E. (2007). Policy expansion of school choice in the American states, 1991-2005 (Version 1) [Dataset]. ICPSR. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20427.v1

EndNote reference type Dataset

Dataset - group author

Elements of the reference

Group author name(s). (Year). Title of dataset - italicised (Version - if needed) [Description of format or type]. Name of publisher - if available. DOI or Web address

In-text reference

(Pew Hispanic Center, 2004)

The Pew Hispanic Center (2004) reported that ....

Reference list

Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/

EndNote reference type Dataset

Unpublished or raw dataset

Elements of the reference

Investigaor(s). (Year). Title - italicised OR [Description of data - if untitled] [Unpublished raw data]. Data source - if available. 

In-text reference

(Sherlock & Mulvihill, 2018)

Sherlock and Mulvihill, (2018) found that ....

Reference list

Sherlock, D., & Mulvihill, A. (2018). MASTER Focus Program: Outline of skills [Unpublished raw data]. The University of Queensland.

EndNote reference type Dataset

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Using dates & retrieval dates

  • Use n.d. if the work is updated regularly
  • Use the "Last Updated" date if it is referring to the specific content you are referencing
  • Do not use "last reviewed" dates
  • Include a Retrieved date if the work is designed to or likely to change regularly eg. dictionary entry
  • Do not include a Retrieved date if an archived version is available

Dictionary or encyclopaedia – print version

Elements of the reference

Author(s) or editor(s) of work – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors or editors. (Ed. or Eds. - if editor used). (Year). Title - italicised (Edition - if other than first). Publisher.

In-text reference

(Wolman, 1989)

In Wolman (1989), it was argued that ....

Reference list

Wolman, B.B. (Ed.). (1989). Dictionary of behavioral science (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

Edited book (if editor used)

Dictionary or encyclopedia entry - individual author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) or editor(s) of work – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors or editors. (Year). Entry title. In Editors - initial(s). Initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors (ed. or Eds), Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition ed.). Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Redmond, 2009)

Redmond (2009)

Reference list

Redmond, B. F. (2017). Affective events theory. In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed.). Sage. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/10.4135/9781483386874.n10

EndNote reference type Electronic book section

Dictionary or encyclopaedia entry - group author

Elements of the reference

Group author name. (Year or n.d.). Title of entry. In Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from Web address

In-text reference

(American Psychological Association, n.d.)

American Psychological Association (n.d.) defined ....

Reference list

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Mindfulness meditation. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/mindfulness-meditation

EndNote reference type Electronic book section

Dictionary or encyclopaedia - no author

Elements of the reference

Entry title. (Year). In Editors - initial(s). Last Name - use & for multiple editors, Title of dictionary or encyclopaedia - italicised (Edition - if other than first ed.). DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Action theory, 2002)

Use entry title, not editors.

Reference list

Action theory. (2002). In C. Calhoun (Ed.), Dictionary of the social sciences. https://www-oxfordreference-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/view/10.1093/acref/9780195123715.001.0001/acref-9780195123715-e-18?rskey=WCYpQn&result=18

EndNote reference type Electronic book section

Figures

Referencing figures

  • Each figure needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document.
  • If a figure is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the caption.
  • Provide each figure with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear next to the figure number.
  • A caption should be included the bottom of the figure to acknowledge that the figure has been reproduced from another source.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • Examples of figures with copyright attributions.

Figure caption format

Journal Article

Elements of caption

Note. From (use for reprinted) or Adapted from (use for adaptations) “Title of Article,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Title of Journal, Volume(Issue - if available), p. xx. (DOI or Web address - if available).Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder (if no permission needed) OR CC License (if Creative Commons) OR Reprinted with permission (if permission needed) OR In the public domain (if in public domain).

Caption Note. From "Long-Term Development of Employee Well-Being: A Latent Transition Approach" by A. Mäkikangas, W. Schaufeli, E. Leskinen, U. Kinnunen, K. Hyvönen and T. Feldt, 2016, Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6), p. 2332. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9696-7). Copyright 2015 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead. 
Reference list

Mäkikangas, M., Schaufeli, W., Leskinen, E., Kinnunen, U., Hyvönen, K. and Feldt, T. (2016). Long-term development of employee well-being: A latent transition approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6), 2325–2345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9696-7

EndNote reference type

Journal article

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, insert the in-text citation as usual in Word. Highlight the reference, go to Edit and Management Citations and in the Formatting menu, click on Show Only in Bibliography then on OK.

Book

Elements of caption

Note. From (use for reprinted) or Adapted from (use for adaptations) Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder (if no permission needed) OR CC License (if Creative Commons) OR Reprinted with permission (if permission needed) OR In the public domain (if in public domain).

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Note. From "Systematic Reviews in Health Care: A Practical Guide (p.61), by P. Glaszious, L. Irwig, C. Bain and G. Colditz, 2001, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2001 by Cambridge University Press. Reprinted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Glaszious, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, insert the in-text citation as usual in Word. Highlight the reference, go to Edit and Management Citations and in the Formatting menu, click on Show Only in Bibliography then on OK.

Book Chapter

Elements of caption

Note. From (use for reprinted) or Adapted from (use for adaptations) “Title of Chapter,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, in Editor - first name initial(s). Editor - last name (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), Year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder (if no permission needed) OR CC License (if Creative Commons) OR Reprinted with permission (if permission needed) OR In the public domain (if in public domain).

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Note. Adapted from "Evidence About Diagnosis" by J. Doust, in T. Hoffman, S. Bennett and C. Del Mar (Eds), Evidence-Based Practice: Across the Health Professions (p.138), 2010, Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier Australia. Adapted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Doust, J. (2010). Evidence about diagnosis. In T. Hoffman, S. Bennett, & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-based practice across the health professions (pp. 128-144). Elsevier Australia.

EndNote reference type

Book chapter

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, insert the in-text citation as usual in Word. Highlight the reference, go to Edit and Management Citations and in the Formatting menu, click on Show Only in Bibliography then on OK.

Website

Elements of caption

Note. From (use for reprinted) or Adapted from (use for adaptations) “Title of Web Document,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year (http://xxxxxx). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder (if no permission needed) OR CC License (if Creative Commons) OR Reprinted with permission (if permission needed) OR In the public domain (if in public domain).

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Caption Note. From "Health Is Not The Same For Everyone" by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone). Copyright 2016 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Reprinted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The caption is used instead.
Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Health is not the same for everyone. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone

EndNote reference type

Report

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, insert the in-text citation as usual in Word. Highlight the reference, go to Edit and Management Citations and in the Formatting menu, click on Show Only in Bibliography then on OK.

Government legislation

About referencing legislation

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association refers to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for referencing legislation. However, this does not cover Australian materials. 

For Australian legislation, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd ed.) has been used. The examples for this guide are based on this format.

Act

Elements of the reference

Short Title of the Act - italicised Year - italicised (Jurisdiction abbreviation) s. Subdivision number - if applicable. Web address

Long title should only be used if there is no short title.

In-text reference

(Major Events Act 2014 (Qld) s. 3)

Major Events Act 2014 (Qld) states that ....

EndNote: In Edit & Manage Citations in Word, choose Exclude Year in Formatting. Then in Suffix field, type space (Qld) and click on OK.

Reference list

Major Events Act 2014 (Qld). https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/inforce/current/act-2014-060

EndNote reference type

Book

Add Act title Year to Title field

Add Jurisdiction abbreviation to Year field

Bill

Elements of the reference

Short Title of the Bill Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) s. Subdivision number - if applicable. Web address

Long title should only be used if there is no short title.

In-text reference

Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23

As found in the Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill (2017, s. 23) .....

EndNote: In Edit & Manage Citations in Word, choose Exclude Year in Formatting. Then in Suffix field, type space (Qld) and click on OK.

Reference list

Healthy Futures Commission Queensland Bill 2017 (Qld) s. 23. https://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/view/pdf/bill.first/bill-2017-007

EndNote reference type

Web page

Add jurisdiction abbreviation to "Year" field

Add section to "Edition" field

Parliamentary debates (Hansard)

Elements of the reference Jurisdiction. Parliamentary debates. Chamber. Day Month Year. Volume. Web address
In-text reference

(Commonwealth, 2010)

EndNote: Go to Edit and Management Citations in Word and add comma Year to Suffix text box eg. , 2022

Reference list

Commonwealth. Parliamentary debates. Senate. 2 February 2010. 1. http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/chamber/hansards/2010-02-02/toc_pdf/7347-8.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%222010s%202010%22

EndNote reference type

Unpublished work

Add Chamber to Department field

Add Day Month Year to Date field

Add Volume number to Place Published field

Australian jurisdiction abbreviations

Jurisdiction Abbreviation
Commonwealth Cth
Australian Capital Territory ACT
New South Wales NSW
Northern Territory NT
Queensland Qld
South Australia SA
Tasmania Tas
Victoria Vic
Western Australia WA

Source: (Melbourne University Law Review Association & Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2010, p. 65).

Images

Images - from a website

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - Last name, initial - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title - italicised. [Image description]. Site name. Web address

In-text reference

The University of Queensland, n.d.

The University of Queensland (n.d.) shows that...

Reference list

The University of Queensland. (n.d.). [Photograph of baby koala in tree]. https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2020/01/new-umbrella%E2%80%99-species-would-massively-improve-conservation

EndNote reference type

Artwork

Add type of image to Type of Work field

Infographic

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - Last name, initial - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title - italicised. [Infographic]. Site name. Web address

In-text reference

(Ivett, 2017)

Ivett (2017) showed that ....

Reference list

Ivett, K. (2017). Women and equality in national parliaments. [Infographic]. Kantar Information is Beautiful. https://www.informationisbeautifulawards.com/showcase/1850-women-and-equality-in-national-parliaments

EndNote reference type

Artwork

Add Infographic to Type of Work field.

Photographs

Elements of the reference

Creator(s) - Last name, initial - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title - italicised. [Photograph]. Site name. Web address

In-text reference

(Watson, n.d.)

Watson (n.d.) demonstrates that ....

Reference list

Includes title 

Waton, C. (n.d.). Red-capped robin [Photograph]. Australian Geographic. https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/wildlife/2019/09/a-guide-to-australias-most-colourful-robins/

No title

Gilligan, J. (n.d.). [Photograph of Australian cassowary sleeping]. Australian Geographic. https://www.australiangeographic.com.au/topics/wildlife/2019/10/jungle-royalty-the-enigmatic-cassowary/

If there is no title, include a brief description in square brackets [ ] where the title goes. Do not italicise.

EndNote reference type

Artwork

If no title, add brief information to Description field.

Add Photograph to Type of Work field

Stock image or clip art

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - use & to combine authors. (Year). Title - italicised [Clip art OR Stock image]. Site name. Web address

In-text reference

(Lucky Business, n.d.)

Lucky Business (n.d.)

Reference list

Lucky Business. (n.d.). Close up view of student taking notes during lecture [Stock image]. shutterstock. https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/close-view-student-taking-notes-during-309289910

EndNote reference type

Artwork

Add Clip art OR Stock image to Type of Work field

Add provider of image eg. shutterstock to Publisher field

Instagram photo

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - use & to combine authors [Instagram name]. (Year, Month Day). Title or content up to first 20 words - italicised [Photograph(s)]. Instagram. Web address

In-text reference

(The University of Queensland Library, 2019)

The University of Queensland Library (2019) showed that....

Reference list

The University of Queensland Library [uniofqldlibrary].(2019, October 21). St Lucia is looking extra gramable this morning. Happy Monday everyone! [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B32v1CUFTQ3/

Short form web addresses can also be used

EndNote reference type

Social media

Interview

Referencing interviews

  • If it is a published interview, use the reference type in which you found the interview eg. online video, newspaper article
  • For an interview you conduct, use the personal communication reference type format.

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Elements of the reference

Name of interviewee - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title/ or description of interview - italicised [Interview]. Name of archive or place stored; Owner. Web address

In-text reference

(Sabbatini, 1993)

Sabbatini (1993) stated that ....

Reference list

Sabbatini, G. (1993, September 10). Musical performance of Giuseppe Sabbatini [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/musical-performance-giuseppe-sabbatini?t=NaN%2CNaN&a=%2C

EndNote reference type Online multimedia

Interview with participant(s), as part of your own research

Elements of the reference

Not included in reference list

In-text reference

Do not cite individually, because this could compromise confidentiality.

Quote anonymously, for example, “Participant A said”.

Reference list Do not include in the reference list.
EndNote reference type Not included in reference list.

Journal article

Print article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s).

In-text reference

(Lowrie & Diezmann, 2009)

Lowrie and Diezmann (2009) have found that ....

Reference list

Lowrie, T., & Diezmann, C. M. (2009). National numeracy tests: A graphic tells a thousand words. Australian Journal of Education, 53, 141-158.

EndNote reference type Journal article

One author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(Osman, 2010)

OR

Osman (2010) thought that….

Reference list

Osman, M. (2010). Controlling uncertainty: A review of human behavior in complex dynamic environments. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 65-86. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017815

The volume number is in italics

EndNote reference type

Journal article (print)

Electronic article 

Two authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(Kerrigan & Kingdon, 2010)

Kerrigan and Kingdon (2010) mentioned that ....

Reference list

Kerrigan, A. M., & Kingdon, C. (2010). Maternal obesity and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Midwifery, 26, 138-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2008.12.005

EndNote reference type Journal article

Three to twenty authors

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(Skenderian et al., 2008)

Skenderian et al. (2008) stated that ....

Reference list

Skenderian, J. J., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D., Lac, A., & Alvaro, E. E. (2008). Expectancy change and adolescents' intentions to use marijuana. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 563-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013020

EndNote reference type Journal article

21 authors or more

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials for first 19 . . . Last Author family name, initial(s). (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI address OR Web address (if available)

In-text reference

(Nath et al., 2008)

Nath et al. (2008) have said that ....

Use only the first author’s last name followed by et al., for every use of the reference.

Reference list

Nath, A. P., Ritchie, S. C., Grinberg, N. F., Tang, H. H., Huang, Q. Q., Teo, S. M., Ahola-Olli, A. V., Wurtz, P., Havulinna, A. S., Santalahti, K., Pitkanen, N., Lehtimaki, T., Kahonen, M., Lyytikainen, L. P., Raitoharju, E., Seppala, I., Sarin, A. P., Ripatti, S., Palotie, A., . . . Inouye, M. (2019). Multivariate genome-wide association analysis of a cytokine network reveals variants with widespread immune, haematological, and cardiometabolic pleiotropy. American Journal of Human Genetics, 105(6), 1076-1090. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.10.001

List all authors up to 19 names.

For 21 or more authors, include the first 19, then an ellipsis - ... - followed by the last author's name.

EndNote reference type Journal article

No author

Elements of the reference

Title of article. (Year). Title of journal - italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s). DOI OR Web Address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

("Vitamin K for Newborns", 2016)

Use the first words of the article title.

Use double quotation marks around the article title.

Reference list

Vitamin K for newborns. (2016). Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 61(5), 675-676. http://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.12550

EndNote reference type Journal article

Advance online publication

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. Advance online publication. DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(Allan, 2010)

Allan (2010) found that ....

Reference list

Allan, H. (2010). The perils facing nurse education: A call for leadership for learning. Nurse Education Today. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.01.002

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Add Advance online publication to Article Number field

Article in press

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (in press). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised. DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(Baldwin & Keefer, in press)

Baldwin and Keefer (in press) stated that ....

Reference list

Baldwin, M., & Keefer, L. A. (in press). Being here and now: The benefits of belonging in space and time. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00214-7

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Add in press in Year field

Cochrane Systematic Review

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI address.

In-text reference

(Shaw et al., 2005)

Shaw et al. (2005) stated that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Article number (instead of page numbers)

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume - italicised(Issue number), Article article number. DOI address OR Web address (if no DOI available)

In-text reference

(de Boer et al., 2014)

de Boer et al. (2014) stated that ....

Reference list

de Boer, M. J., Steinhagen, H. E., Versteegen, G. J., Struys, M. M. R. F., & Sanderman, R. (2014). Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain. PloS One, 9(1), Article e87445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087445

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Add the word Article followed by the article number in the Pages field of the reference eg. Article e87445 

Article from academic database

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal name – italicised, Volume – italicised(Issue or number), Page number(s).

In-text reference

(Duffy, 2012)

Duffy (2012) have found that ....

Reference list

Dufty, N. (2012). Using social media to build community disaster resilience. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 27(1), 40–45.

EndNote reference type Journal article

Only use if there is no DOI

If DOI available, use examples above

Lecture notes and slides

Lecture notes and slides eg. Powerpoint - Blackboard

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day). Title of slides or lecture topic – italicised [PowerPoint slides]. Site name. Web address

In-text reference

(Johnson, 2008)

Johnson (2008) stated that...

Reference list

Johnson, A. (2008). Week three: Foucault [PowerPoint slides]. Learn.UQ. https://learn.uq.edu.au/

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Add PowerPoint slides to Type of Work field

Add Site name to Distributor field

 

Lecture notes and slides eg. Powerpoint - online

Elements of the reference

Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of slides – italicised [Type of format]. Site information eg. SlideShare. Web address

In-text reference

(Surden, 2017)

Surden (2017)

Reference list

Surden, H. (2017). Artificial intelligence and law overview [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/HarrySurden/harry-surden-artificial-intelligence-and-law-overview

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Add Type of format to Type of Work field

Add Site information to Distributor field

Legal sources

About referencing legal sources

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association refers to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation for referencing legal publications. However, this does not cover Australian materials. 

For Australian resources, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (3rd ed.) has been used. The examples in this guide are based on this format.

Cases - reported, organised by volume

Elements of the reference

Case name - italicised (Year). Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. Web address

In-text reference

(Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi, 2012)

As found in Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012)...

Reference list

Montevento Holdings Pty Ltd v Scaffidi (2012). 246 CLR 325. https://www-westlaw-com-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/

EndNote reference type

Webpage

Add Volume, Law Report Abbreviation, Starting Page Number to Publisher field

Cases - reported, organised by year

Elements of the reference

Case name - italicised [Year] Volume Law Report Abbreviation Starting Page Number. Web address

In-text reference

(Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors, 2017)

As found in Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors (2017)....

Reference list

Nothdurft & Anor v QGC Pty Limited & Ors [2017] QLC 41. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/qld/QLC/2017/41.pdf

EndNote reference type

Web page

Add Volume, Law Report Abbreviation, Starting Page Number to Publisher field

When document finalised, convert to plain text and change Year brackets to square [ ]

Music

Song

Elements of the reference

Singer or composer - last name, initial(s). (Year). Song Title [Song]. On Album Title - italicised. Record Company. (Original work published Year - if needed). Web address - if needed

In-text reference

(Simon & Garfunkel, 1965)

Simon and Garfunkel (1965) wrote about ....

Reference list

Simon, P. & Garfunkel, A. (1965). The sounds of silence [Song]. On Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. Columbia. 

EndNote reference type

Music

Album

Elements of the reference

Singer or group name. (Year). Title of album - italicised [Album]. Record Company. (Original work published Year - if needed). Web address - if needed

In-text reference

(U2, 1988)

U2 (1988) sang about ....

Reference list

U2. (1988). Rattle and hum [Album]. Island; Sun Studio; Point Depot; Danesmoat; STS Studio; A&M Studios; Ocean Way.

EndNote reference type

Online multimedia

Newspaper or magazine article

Newspaper article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper title – italicised, Page number(s) - if available. Web or DOI address - if available

In-text reference

(Lytton, 2020)

Lytton (2020) argued that ....

Month Day not included in in-text reference

Reference list

Lytton, C. (2020, January 18). The playground game re-energising gym classes. Brisbane Times. https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/the-playground-game-re-energising-gym-classes-20200117-p53sga.html

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Elements of the reference

Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Newspaper title – italicised, Page number(s) - if available. Web or DOI address - if available

In-text reference

("Meeting the needs", 2001)

Month Day not included in in-text reference.

Reference list

Meeting the needs of counsellors. (2001, May 5). The Courier Mail, 22.

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Online news websites

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of article - italicised. Name of news website. Web address

In-text reference

(McGhee & Burt, 2019)

McGhee and Burt (2019) argued that ....

Month Day not included in in-text reference.

Reference list

McGhee, R. & Burt, J. (2019, November 22). Bushfire crisis costing Queensland and northern NSW millions. ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-22/queensland-bushfire-crisis-nsw-fires-cost-insurance-damage-bill/11725920

EndNote reference type Newspaper article

Magazine article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day - if available). Article title. Magazine name - italicised, volume - italicised(Issue - if available), Page(s) - if available. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Flora, 2017)

Flora (2017) has found that ....

Month Day not included in in-text reference.

Reference list

Flora, C. (2017, September 5). The hardest word. Psychology Today, 50(5). https://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/201709/the-hardest-word?collection=1105674

If any elements eg. page numbers are missing, leave them out.

EndNote reference type

Magazine article

Other web sources

Podcast

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) (Role eg. Host). (Year - Year). Title - italicised, [Type Podcast]. Publisher. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Malcolm, 2002-present)

Malcolm (2002-present)

Reference list

Malcolm, L. (Host). (2002-present). All in the mind [Audio podcast]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/

If access via app or no web address, leave out web address

EndNote reference type

Podcast

Convert to plain text. Add (Host) after author name.

Podcast episode

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) (Role eg. Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode Title (No. Episode Number - if available) [Type podcast episode]. In Series Title - italicised. Publisher. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Malcolm, 2019)

Malcolm (2019)

Reference list

Malcolm, L. (Host). (2019, September 8). Inside talking therapy [Audio podcast episode] All in the mind. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/inside-talking-therapy/11478090

If access via app or no web addressleave out web address

EndNote reference type

Podcast

Convert to plain text. Add (Host) after author name.

Email

Elements of the reference Not included in reference list
In-text reference

K. P. Miles (personal communication, August 6, 2018)

Or

(L. J. Henderson, personal communication, February 5, 2017)

Reference list Not included in reference list, only cited in text.
EndNote reference type Entered into text manually

 

Blog post

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of post. Blog name - italicised. Web address

In-text reference

(Conason, 2018)

Conason (2018) stated that ....

Reference list

Conason, A. (2018, October 5). Why you should consider group therapy. Eating Mindfully. https://www.psychologytoday.com/au/blog/eating-mindfully/201810/why-you-should-consider-group-therapy

EndNote reference type

Blog

 

 

Comment on a post or article

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of post comment or up to first 20 words [Comment on the article "Article or post title"]. Blog title - italicised. Web address

In-text reference

(Hordofa, 2019)

Hordofa (2019)

Reference list

Hordofa, A. B. (2019, October 9). I am very interested to read it and congratulates the author for the finding! [Comment on the post "In the eye of the beholder: Why you should care about color blindness when designing scientific images"]. Elsevier Researcher Academy. https://www.elsevier.com/connect/authors-update/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder

Use name of person making comment as author

Include title of comment or up to first 20 words of comment as title

Shortened web address can be used

EndNote reference type

Blog

YouTube video - real name of person posting known

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or group name [Username - if available]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video - italicised [Video]. YouTube - or similar site name. Web address

In-text reference

(O'Brien, 2017)

O'Brien (2017) demonstrated that ....

Reference list

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

EndNote reference type

Social media

Add title to Post text field

Add Month Day to Post Date field

Add username to Handle field

Add YouTube to Provider field

YouTube video - screen name only

Elements of the reference

Username - exactly as posted. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. Site name (eg. YouTube). Web Address

In-text reference

(ssiconamed, 2013)

ssiconamed (2013) noted that ....

Reference list

ssiconamed. (2013, July 5). Tutorial NVivo [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AtFisYXo9k

EndNote reference type

Social media

Add title to Post text field

Add Month Day to Post Date field

Add YouTube to Provider field

Wikipedia

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year, Month Date or n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved Month Date, Year - if needed, Web address

In-text reference

("Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy", 2019)

"Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy" (2019)

Reference list

Archived Version Available

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (2019, July 10). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy&oldid=905716408

Use archived version (click on "View History" to check). Include listed date in (Year, Month Date) section.

No Archived Version

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 20, 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mindfulness-based_cognitive_therapy&oldid=905716408

If no archived version available, use n.d. in (Year) and include Retrieved information (as below)

EndNote reference type

Archived Version

Electronic book section

No Archived Version

Dictionary

Patents and standards

Patents

Elements of the reference

Patent inventor last name, initials. (Year patent issued). Patent title - italicised (Country Patent No.). Name of official source of patent information - usually patent office. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Graboski, 2016)

Graboski (2016)

Reference list

Graboski, T. M. (2016). Solar hot water and recovery system (Australian application no. 2016253585). IP Australia. http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do?applicationNo=2016253585

EndNote reference type

Report

Add Country Patent No. to Report Number

Add official source of patent to Publisher

Standards

Elements of the reference

Name of standards organisation. (Year). Title of standard - italicised (Standard number). Publisher (print) or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Standards Australia, 2016)

Standards Australia (2016)

Reference list

Standards Australia. (1989). Electrical equipment for coal mines - Insulating materials - Materials for insulating power conducting components (AS 1147.1-1989). https://www-saiglobal-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/PDFTemp/osu-2019-12-09/0496997084/11471.PDF.

EndNote reference type

Report

Add standard number into Report Number field

Personal communication

Using personal communications

  • These can include:-
  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

Elements of the reference Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
In-text reference

J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018)

(K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)

EndNote reference type Add manually to document using above format.

Press (media) release

Press (media) release - online

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or corporate name. (Year, Month Day). Title - in italics [Press release]. Web address

In-text reference (Office of Fair Trading, 2018)
Reference list

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release]. https://www.qld.gov.au/law/laws-regulated-industries-and-accountability/queensland-laws-and-regulations/fair-trading-services-programs-and-resources/fair-trading-latest-news/media-statements/community-groups-key-to-seniors-staying-engaged

EndNote reference type

Press release

Report

Abbreviating groups as authors

  • Group authors can be an organisation, professional association, company, government department
  • Include the full name of the group the first time it is used. The abbreviation is included in square brackets.
  • If the abbreviation is well known, it can be included for subsequent uses.

In-text Example:

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund ([UNICEF], 2018)

(United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund [UNICEF], 2018)

  • The full group name should be used in the reference list.

Government report

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised  (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to author. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development, 2016)

Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development (2016) found that ....

Reference list

Queensland Department of Innovation and Tourism Industry Development. (2016). Advancing tourism 2016-20. https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/advancing-tourism/resource/df997cf7-14fc-47b1-ac99-ddc7f0975967

EndNote reference type Report

Industry/Corporate report

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s) or company name - use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of report - italicised (Report number - if available). Publisher - include if different to authorWeb address - if available

In-text reference

(The Coca-Cola Company, 2017)

The Coca-Cola Company (2017) has found that ....

Reference list

The Coca-Cola Company. (2017). 2016 sustainability report. http://www.coca-colacompany.com/content/dam/journey/us/en/private/fileassets/pdf/2017/2016-sustainability/2016-Sustainability-Report-The-Coca-Cola-Company.pdf

EndNote reference type

Report

 

Secondary source (indirect citation)

What is an indirect citation or secondary source?

An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • Include both the original author and year and the author and year of the work where quote/idea was found in the in-text reference.
  • Add "as cited in" before the author in the in-text reference. For example - (Harris, 2009, as cited in Lewis, 2019).
  • In the reference list, provide the details of the work in which you found the quotation or idea.

Citing a secondary source (indirect citation)

Elements of the reference Follow the format of the reference in which you found the indirect citation.
In-text reference

(Original author last name, Year of original work, as cited in Author last name of work where quote found, Year)

Miller (1953, as cited in Agrios, 2005) found …

… as was found (Miller, 1953, as cited in Agrios, 2005)

Reference list

Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). Elsevier Academic Press.

EndNote reference type

Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing.

Add as cited in manually in the Prefix box, using Edit Citation option. 

Social media

Referencing social media

  • Do not change or correct nonstandard spelling and capitalization.
  • Include any links or hashtags.
  • If emojis are used, replicate them where possible or include its name in square brackets. For example, [winking face].

Post on Facebook or similar eg. Tumblr

Elements of the reference

Author of post - last name, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Content or caption of the post - up to the first 20 words - italicised [Image attached - if needed] [Content form eg. Video, Status update, Infographic]. Social media service eg. Facebook. Web address - short web address can be used

In-text reference

(University of Queensland, 2017)

The University of Queensland (2017) found that ....

Reference list

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers! [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/pg/uniofqldlibrary/posts/

EndNote reference type

Social media

Tweet

Elements of the reference

Author of post - last name, initial(s) [Twitter Name]. (Year, Month Day). Content or caption of the post – up to the first 20 words - italicised [image attached - if needed] [Tweet]. Twitter. Web address 

In-text reference

(University of Queensland Library, 2017)

The University of Queensland Library (2017) noted that ....

Reference list

University of Queensland Library [@UQ_Library]. (2017, October 4). Turtles down by UQ St Lucia lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice! [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/uqlibrary/status/915782138905034752

EndNote reference type

Social media

Add Image Attached to Original Post field.

Instagram photograph

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - use & to combine authors [Instagram name]. (Year, Month Day). Title or content up to first 20 words - italicised [Photograph(s)]. Instagram. Web address

In-text reference

(The University of Queensland Library, 2019)

The University of Queensland Library (2019) showed that....

Reference list

The University of Queensland Library [uniofqldlibrary].(2019, October 21). St Lucia is looking extra gramable this morning. Happy Monday everyone! [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B32v1CUFTQ3/

EndNote reference type

Social media

Facebook page

Elements of the reference

Author – last name, initials OR group name. (Year). Title of page - italicised (eg. Home, Photos) [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Web address

In-text reference

(The University of Queensland Library, n.d.)

The University of Queensland Library (n.d.) mentioned that.....

Reference list

The University of Queensland Library. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Retrieved November 29, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/uniofqldlibrary

EndNote reference type

Social media

Software and mobile apps

When do I reference software or apps?

  • Software or apps that are common (to your field or audience) do not need to have in-text references and reference list entries. Just include the full software or app name and the version in brackets (if relevant). For example, Covidence (Version 2).
  • If they have limited access or distribution, the in-text reference and reference list entries are required. Please see the examples below.
  • If you have quoted or paraphrased from software or an app, they also need to use an in-text reference and include a reference list entry.
  • If you used a website to create something like a survey, include the website name and address in text. For example - We used Checkbox (https:www/checkpoint.com) to create our survey. An in-text reference and including a reference list entry isn't required.

Software

Elements of the reference

Author(s) last name, initial(s) or group author(s). (Year). Title of software - italicised (Version ver. number) [Computer software]. Publisher. Web address

In-text reference

(Psychology Software Tools, 2021)

Psychology Software Tools (2021) found that ....

Reference list

Psychology Software Tools. (2021). E-Prime (Version 3.0) [Computer software]. Psychology Software Tools. https://pstnet.com/products/e-prime/

EndNote reference type

Computer program

Mobile apps

Elements of the reference

Author(s) last name, initial(s) or group author(s). (Year). Title of software - italicised (Version ver. number) [Mobile app]. Apple Store OR Google Play. Web address

In-text reference

(Psycnet Software, 2020)

Psycnet Software (2020) found that ....

Reference list

Psycnet Software. (2020). The psychology blog (Version 2.0) [Mobile app]. Google Play. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.newandromo.dev7998.app965243 

EndNote reference type

Computer program

Specialised health information

UpToDate

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of section – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year of publication). Title of section. Title of database – italicised Retrieved, Month Date, Year - of retrieval, from Web address

In-text reference

(Zachary, 2018)

Zachary (2018) has argued that ....

Reference list

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from https://www-uptodate-com.ezp3.library.uq.edu.au/contents/treatment-of-seasonal-influenza-in-adults

EndNote reference type

Electronic article

Add Month Date, Year to Date Access field

Cochrane Systematic Review

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of article – family name and initials, use & for multiple authors. (Year). Title of article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI address.

In-text reference

(Shaw et al., 2005)

Shaw et al. (2005) stated that ....

Reference list

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

EndNote reference type Journal article

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Elements of the reference Author. (Year). Title of report - italicised. Web address
In-text reference

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016)

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016) has found that ....

Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Australia's health 2016. https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/9844cefb-7745-4dd8-9ee2-f4d1c3d6a727/19787-AH16.pdf.aspx?inline=true

EndNote reference type

Report

Include comma at end of author eg. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,

Codes of conduct

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or group author name. (Year). Title of report - italicised. Web address

In-text reference

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2018)

The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (2018) states that ....

Reference list

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for nurses. http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx.

EndNote reference type

Report

If a group author(s) is used, include comma at end eg. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia,

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH)

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Web address

In-text reference ("Allergy", 2018)
Reference list

Allergy. (2018). In Australian Medicines Handbook. https://amhonline-amh-net-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/chapters/allergy-anaphylaxis/allergy?menu=vertical. 

EndNote reference type

Electronic book section

 

Double quotation marks are included for the title in in-text reference if title is not italicised in reference list eg. article title, chapter title

British Pharmacopoeia Online

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Web address 

In-text reference ("Aspirin tablets", 2018)
Reference list

Aspirin tablets. (2018). In British Pharmacopoeia Online. https://www-pharmacopoeia-com.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/monographs/Aspirin-tablets.pdf

EndNote reference type

Electronic book section

 

Double quotation marks are included for the title in in-text reference if title is not italicised in reference list eg. article title, chapter title

eTG complete (Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines Complete)

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Web address 

In-text reference ("Principles of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing", 2015).
Reference List

Principles of appropriate antimicrobial prescribing. (2015). In Electronic Therapeutic Guidelines Complete. https://tgldcdp-tg-org-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/viewTopic?topicfile=antimicrobial-use-principles#toc_d1e123

EndNote reference type

Electronic book section

 

Double quotation marks are included for the title in in-text reference if title is not italicised in reference list eg. article title, chapter title

MIMS Online

Elements of the reference

Title of entry. (Year - use n.d. if no year available). In Title of work - italicised. Web address 

In-text reference ("Betamin", 2018)
Reference list

Betamin. (2018). In MIMS Online. https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/Search/ShowPDF.aspx?xmlDoc=02183.xml&XSLKey=PIxsl_pdf&PathKey=AbbrevPIxmlPath

EndNote reference type

Electronic book section

 

Double quotation marks are included for the title in in-text reference if title is not italicised in reference list eg. article title, chapter title

Tables

Referencing tables

  • Each table needs to be numbered in the order in which they appear in the document eg. Table 1, Table 2.
  • Always refer to a table by their number. Statements such as “in the table below” or "the table shown on page 78” should not be used.
  • Provide each table with a brief but explanatory title. This should appear below the table number.
  • A table note (caption) should be included the bottom of the table to acknowledge that the table has been reproduced from another source. 
  • If a table is being reproduced for inclusion in a work which is being published, you must seek permission from the copyright holder. This permission must also be included in the table note (caption). The word “Note” is included at the start in italics.
  • "Note" is used in place of in-text reference.
  • Include the full reference in the reference list.
  • Check out some table examples

Copyright statements

  • If the table has been reprinted, include "Reprinted with permission" after copyright statement.
  • If the table has been adapted, include "Adapted with permission" after copyright statement.
Type Statement Example
Copyrighted material Copyright Year by Copyright Holder Name Copyright 2019 by The University of Queensland.
Creative Commons CC relevant licence abbreviation CC BY-SA
Public domain In the public domain In the public domain.

Table note (caption) format

Journal Article

Elements of the table note

Note. From (use if reprinted) or Adapted from “Title of Article,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Title of Journal, Volume(Issue - if available), p. xx. (DOI or Web address - if available). Copyright statement.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Example table note  Note. From "Using a Gratitude Intervention to Enhance Well-Being in Older Adults" by A. Killen and A. Macaskill, 2015, Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), p. 955. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3). Copyright 2014 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Reprinted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead. 
Reference list

Killen, A., & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 947–964. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3

EndNote reference type

Journal article

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book

Elements of the table note

Note. From (for reprinted) Adapted from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year, Publisher. (DOI or Web address - if available). Copyright statement. 

If you are using it in a published work, include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission at the end.

Example table note 

Note. Adapted from Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide (p. 83), by P. Glaszious, L. Irwig, C. Bain and G. Colditz, 2001, Cambridge University Press. Copyright 2001 by Cambridge University Press. Adapted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Glaszious, P., Irwig, L., Bain, C., & Colditz, G. (2001). Systematic reviews in health care: A practical guide. Cambridge University Press.

EndNote reference type

Book

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Book Chapter

Elements of the table note

Note. From (or reprint) or Adapted from “Title of Chapter,” by Author first name - initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name - initial(s). Author - last name, in Editor - first name initial(s). Editor - last name (Ed.), Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), Year, Publisher. (DOI or Web address - if available). Copyright statement.

If you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Example table note  Note. From "Evidence About Diagnosis" by J. Doust, in T. Hoffman, S. Bennett and C. Del Mar (Eds), Evidence-Based Practice: Across the Health Professions (p.141), 2010, Elsevier Australia. Copyright 2010 by Elsevier Australia. Reprinted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Doust, J. (2010). Evidence about diagnosis. In T. Hoffman, S. Bennett, & C. Del Mar (Eds.), Evidence-based practice: Across the health professions (pp. 128-144). Elsevier Australia.

EndNote reference type

Book chapter

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Website

Elements of the table note

Note. From (if reprinted) or Adapted from “Title of Web Document,” by Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name and Author - first name initial(s). Author - last name, Year (Web address). Copyright statement. 

hIf you are using it in a published work, at the end include Reprinted [or Adapted] with permission. 

Example table note  Note. From "Health is not the same for everyone" by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 (https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone). Copyright 2016 by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Reprinted with permission.
In-text reference An in-text reference is not used. The table note is used instead.
Reference list

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Health is not the same for everyone. https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016-in-brief/contents/health-is-not-the-same-for-everyone

EndNote reference type

Web Page

To ensure the in-text reference does not appear, in Word, insert the in-text citation as usual. Highlight the reference, go to "Edit and Management Citations" and in the "Formatting" menu, click on "Show Only in Bibliography" then on "OK".

Television program

Television series

Elements of the reference

Executive Producer(s) (Executive Producer(s)). (Years - it aired, use present if still airing). Title - italicised [TV series]. Production Compan(ies); Broadcaster Name.

In-text reference

(Benioff et al., 2009-2011)

Benioff et al. (2009-2011)

Reference list

Benioff, D., Casady, G., Doelger, F., Gerardis, V., & Weiss, D. B. (Executive Producers). (2011–2019). Game of thrones [TV series]. Television 360; Grok! Studio; Generator Entertainment; Bighead Littlehead; Home Box Office.

EndNote reference type

Audiovisual material

As last step, convert to plain text. Add (Executive Producers) as needed.

Episode from television series or webisode

Elements of the reference

Episode writer's name - last name, initial(s) (Writer), & Director name - last name, initial(s). (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of television series episode (Season ..., Episode ...) [Television series episode]. In Executive producer - inital(s), last name (Executive producer(s)), Television series name - italicised. Production Companies - use ; to separate multiples.

In-text reference

(Writer's last name & Director's last name, Year)

(Rappaport & Dubin, 1983)

Rappaport and Dubin (1983) found that ....

Reference list

Rappaport, J. (Writer) & Dubin, C. S. (Director). (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe (Executive producer), M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.

EndNote reference type

Television episode

As last step, convert to plain text. Add (Director), (Writer) or (Executive producer) as needed.

 

Thesis

Thesis - from website

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis – italicised [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Institution]. Archive name. http://www.xxxxxx

In-text reference

(Axford, 2007)

Axford (2007) found that ....

Reference list

Axford, J.C. (2007). What constitutes success in Pacific Island community conserved areas? [Doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland]. UQ eSpace. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:158747

EndNote reference type

Thesis

Add Archive Name to Name of Database field.

Thesis - from database

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initials. (Year). Title of thesis – italicised (Publication No. - if available) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Database Name. 

In-text reference

(Leigh, 2010)

Leigh (2010) reported that ....

Reference list

Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication No. 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

EndNote reference type

Thesis

Add Publication Number to Document Number field.

Video

Film or movie

Elements of the reference

Director(s) - or similar eg. Executive Producer, use & for multiple names (Director - or similar descriptor eg. Producer). (Year). Title of film or movie - italicised [Film; list details of format eg. two disc special edition - if needed]. Production Company. Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Wilder, 1959) 

Wilder (1959)

Reference list

Wilder, B. (Director). (1959). Some like it hot [Film]. Ashton Productions; The Mirisch Corporation.

Scott, R. (Director). (2006). Blade runner [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Roadshow.

EndNote reference type

Film or broadcast

As last step, convert to plain text. Add (Director) as needed.

YouTube video

Elements of the reference

Author - last name, initial(s) or group name [Username - if available]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video - italicised [Video]. YouTube - or similar site name. Web address

In-text reference

(O'Brien, 2017)

O'Brien (2017) demonstrated that ....

Reference list

O’Brien, B. [Brenna O]. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNo-Qxsp-mk

EndNote reference type

Social media

Add title to Post text field

Add Month Day to Post Date field

Add username to Handle field

Add YouTube to Provider field

Instagram video

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - use & to combine authors [Instagram name]. (Year, Month Day). Title or content up to first 20 words - italicised [Video]. Instagram. Web address

In-text reference

(The University of Queensland Library, 2019)

The University of Queensland Library (2019) showed that....

Reference list

The University of Queensland Library [uniofqldlibrary]. (2019, October 21). Visit the High-Use and Requested Items section on level 1 of Central Library [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B2BQbfRlabj/

EndNote reference type

Social media

Add title to Post text field

Add Month Day to Post Date field

Add username to Handle field

Webpage

Referencing webpages

Important information   Use these examples if the page is not from a larger publication eg. newspaper or if no other reference type fits it.

  • If you use multiple pages from within the same website, reference each page individually.
  • If referring to a website in general, do not include it in the in-text reference or in the reference list. Include website name within the text and add the web address in parentheses. For example - The survey was developed using Checkbox (http://www.checkbox.com) 
  • Leave out the name of the website if the author and site name are the same.
  • If a part of the date is not available eg. not specific date eg. March 16 or no month, just include the year.

The University of Queensland. (2020).

The University of Queensland. (2020, October).

The University of Queensland. (2020, October 15).

  • If there is no date at all, include n.d.
  • If there are references with the same author(s) and year, list them in alphabetically by title in the reference list. For he first of these references, add "a" after the year, b after the year for the second reference and so on. Use the relevant letter after the year in the in-text reference.

Webpage within website - individual author

Elements of the reference

Author(s) of page – person or organisation, use & for multiple authors. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website name. Web address

In-text reference

(Shapiro & Cowan, 2017)

Shapiro and Cowan (2017) mentioned that ....

Only include Year

Reference list

Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January 10). Key points about caffeine and migraines. American Migraine Foundation. https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/caffeine-and-migraine/

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

If there is no date or no month, these can be left out eg. Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017) or Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January).

Webpage within website - group author

Elements of the reference

Group author name. (Year, Month Day - if available). Title of page - italicised. Website name - if needed. Web address

In-text reference

(Mayo Clinic, 2017)

Mayo Clinic (2017) stated that ....

Only include Year

Reference list

Mayo Clinic. (2017, March 8). Nutrition and healthy eating. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/caffeine/art-20045678?p=1

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Add Month Day to Last Update Date field if needed.

If there is no date or no month, these can be left out eg. Mayo Clinic. (2017) or Mayo Clinic. (2017, March).

Webpage within website - no date

Elements of the reference

Group author name. (n.d.). Title of page - italicised. Website name - if needed. Web address

In-text reference

(Australian Psychological Society, n.d.)

Reference list

Australian Psychological Society. (n.d.). Anxiety disorders. https://www.psychology.org.au/for-the-public/Psychology-Topics/Anxiety

Leave out the name of the website if the author and site name are the same.

EndNote reference type

Web Page

Works in non-English languages

Journal article

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initials. (Year). Article title in original language [English translation of article title]. Journal name - italicised, volume - italicised(Issue - if available. Not italicised), Page(s). DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Guimard & Florin, 2007)

Guimard and Florin (2007) argued that ....

Reference list

Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Les evaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles predictives des difficultes de lecture au cours preparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant, 19, 5-17. http://doi.org/10.4000/rfp.4219

EndNote reference type

Journal article

Add English translation to Translated Title field.

Book

Elements of the referenc

Author - last name, initial(s), & last name, initial(s). (Year). Title - italicised [English translation of title]. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if available

In-text reference

(Mangelsdorf, 2020)

Mangelsdorf (2020) argues that...

Reference list

Mangelsdorf, J. (2020). Positive psychologie im coaching: Positive coaching für coaches, berater und therapeuten [Positive psychology in coaching: Positive coaching for coaches, consultants and therapists]. Springer. https://doi-org.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/10.1007/978-3-658-27632-4

EndNote reference type

Book

Add English translation of title to Translated Title field.

Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

Non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese

If you use the original version of a non-English work, cite the original version. Non-Latin alphabets are not used in the reference list in APA Style, so the title needs to be transliterated (that is, converted to the alphabet you are using to write a paper), and then followed by an English translation, in brackets.

Book

Elements of the reference

Author(s) - last name, initial(s). (Year). Original Title - italicised  [Title - English translation]. Publisher. DOI or Web address - if needed

In-text reference

(Najm, 1966)

Najm (1966) stated that ....

Reference list

Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi al-hadith [The novel in modern Arabic literature]. Dar Al-Thaqafah.

EndNote reference type Book

References

Works used in this guide

American Psychological Association. (2020). Brochure references. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/brochure-references

American Psychological Association. (2020). Journal article references. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/journal-article-references

American Psychological Association. (2019). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). 

American Psychological Association. (2022). Quotations. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations

McAdoo, T. (2020, March 16). How to create an APA style reference for a canceled conference presentation. American Psychological Association. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/canceled-conferences

Melbourne University Law Review Association & Melbourne Journal of International Law. (2010). Australian guide to legal citation. (3rd ed.). http://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/1586203/FinalOnlinePDF-2012Reprint.pdf